Monday, September 30, 2019
Professor Brian D. Heffner 7 December 2012 A Day In Criminal Court This week I had the opportunity to sit In on criminal court proceedings. I chose to visit the Oakland County Court House for the day and noticed quite a few things through out the whole experience. I have been to a few courts In the past, criminal, traffic, and family, but never In the Oakland County bulldlng. There were many details of the proceedings, the Image, and even the condltlons of everything from the bulldlng Itself to the people Involved that I found particularly Interesting.The first thing I hought when I entered the bulldlng was that It was not crowded. In previous vlslts to troy courts the place was packed, let alone confusing. This courthouse was different. The hallways were very modern and clean and it felt fresh to me, not dark and dismal like it could have been. (l guess I have to also consider that I didn' t have any charges against me so I wasn? t entering the building expecting to hate being there ) I was surprised by the security measures. It seemed as if it was too easy to get through. I expected to have three or four metal detectors lined up for a big crowd, but there was only one.Right away I got the sense that the size of the building was not reflective of the amount of cases per day it accommodates. After speaking with one of the guards I was referred to the criminal court room rather than the family court, due to what he called a more interesting day.? . The courtroom itself I thought was way too small. There were only two and a half rows for people to sit and watch, forcing many people to have to wait outside. That I thought was not a well thought out design. There is tons of extra hallway space that they could have stretched the room out to make it bigger so you wouldn't run into those kinds of problems.The room also had extravagant fixtures hanging from the ceiling. I don't really understand the purpose of them, they may even have been lights, but they Just looked l ike a waste of money. I dont think they serve any other reason than to look pretty, and if that's the case, they could have spent the money on the room extension. That's Just my opinion of the building; another thing that struck me was the people involved. As I looked around the court room, I saw lawyers, citizens, guards, and of course the Judge. The Judge, I was informed, was the night Judge filling In for someone.I was warned by my buddy, the guard, that he would be sluggish, but I thought It flowed nicely. I must first speak of the lawyers because they bothered me the most. These lawyers were slobs! I realize that you may not make a whole lot of money being a public defender, but you could at least dress appropriately. One of these lawyers had his whole hem hanging out with string following him everywhere. This guys pants were wrinkled and his hair completely void of any type of brushing. I would never hire any one that looked Ilke that. and I would be scared If I had him assign ed to me.Another lawyer, a woman this time, was the most horrifying thing I have ever seen. Before she even came in the wanted a new lawyer because she was as dizzy. When she walked in I realized they had made a huge understatement. This woman had the most disgusting mess of hair on top of her head and she kept scratching it. It was like a huge crimped, teased, knotty mess. I couldn't believe that she would walk into a courtroom like that. Oh my God she was a mess! I don't understand how she could represent anyone looking like that. There was only one professional looking lawyer and he was the prosecutor.Everyone else looked third rate compared to him. The other group of people I looked at was the criminals. There was definitely a mixed group of people there. There was one lady in her 40's that was wearing a long fur coat and all the Jewelry in the world, and you could Just tell she was ashamed to be there. Her husband wouldn't even sit in the courtroom with her. I really would have loved to know what she did wrong, but with all the bench conversation you never got to hear her crime, Just her dismissal. Another guy that had charges against him wasn't even allowed in the courtroom ecause he didn't have the right shoes.I thought that was completely unfair. He was outside the courtroom explaining that he didn't have any money to buy good shoes for the day, but they still wouldn't let him in. I guess all this stuff has been pretty superficial, but what really bothered me was how each of the cases was handled. I always thought that the public could view any courtroom proceeding, but I felt extremely short changed. In fact I think it was unfair to the criminals as well. It seemed like every case was decided at the bench before even saying what the charges were.I know I sat through three hours of court and left only knowing what two of the cases was really about. When the incarcerated people were brought out it looked like they were clueless as to what was going on, because they couldn't hear any of it. They looked shocked sometimes when hearing the decisions as if they didn't know what was happening to them. I know that I was shocked when I heard some of the verdicts because I had no idea what the crime was For the most part they Just announced codes not allowing the common person to understand a thing they're talking about.After every decision the lawyer had to break it down to their own words to the clients. That annoyed me so much. I was also disgusted with one case in particular where they actually did describe the crime. A man and a woman had both committed armed robbery and in the process hospitalized two victims. Their lawyer had the nerve to ask for $1000 bail for the two of them, pointing out the families of each of the criminals in the courtroom, explaining that they both had newborns to take care of. This lawyer had a 6 year old child in the courtroom to hear his father receive a $50, 000 bail. I Just think that was wrong.The lawyer knew there was no way in the world he was getting his client off, the guy had a rap sheet longer than the Bible from 4 different states, but he chose to put that kid through that. I don't get that. I guess overall my court experience was a pretty good learning experience. I learned to appreciate my lawyer a 100 times more Just for his wardrobe alone. I learned that you always need appropriate shoes even if your clothes are as crappy as ever. I learned that the city of Oakland County prefers style to space accommodations, and most importantly I learned that is cheaper to obey the law than to break it.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
It is not common for an enterprise to rise from the level of start-up to market domination in less than 3 decades, but Home Depot has this special distinction. With annual sales in excess of $80 billion from over 2 thousand retail stores (A Portrait of Growth, 2007) this remarkable corporation did not even exist until 1978. This stunning growth, which has an impressive record of profitability as well, has been largely achieved in North America, during the less than dynamic times of the last quadrant of the 20th century. The Home Depot success story is not in mere commercial or financial terms alone, but is also a powerful symbol of the spirit of free enterprise: the company was founded by a team of just 2 entrepreneurs, and has made deep inroads in all the communities it serves (Roush, 1999). This document combines both internal and external views and accounts of the functional histories and accomplishments of Home Depot, and concludes with observations about the possible future prospects of the corporation in the global markets which have begun to unfold. Company Analysis Home Depot has been built on a triad of platforms, which can be used to analyze its performance in qualitative terms (A Portrait of Growth, 2007). The first of these planks has been to build on a core business, which the company has executed with finesse and with impressive results. The corporate brand has become virtually synonymous with all do-it-yourself and do-it-for-me home improvement activities in the United States. The company is present in all 50 States, and has a comprehensive package of products and services for all categories of individual home owners. The company brand is an assurance of quality and value-for-money for an entire generation of U. S. citizens. Easily accessible customer advice (Roush, 1999). and strong cultural roots in the multi-racial values of modern America are inextricably linked with all phases of company operations. A second dimension of Home Depot has been to extend business (A Portrait of Growth, 2007). The management has been relatively conservative in this respect, adding wholesale and electronic business lines, but without the kind of aggressive expansion that was a hall-mark of its early years of store expansion. Indeed, it is also interested to dispose off its wholesale business. It is possible to think of many extensions of the original home improvement business in a retail format, which the company seems to have ignored. However, business extension remains a key stated aim of Home Depot. The third plank of Home Depot is to enter new markets (A Portrait of Growth, 2007). Implementation, being restricted to Canada, Mexico, and China, has been poor. Russia, India, the European Union, Brazil, the Middle East, and South Africa, are some of the potential markets which Home Depot has ignored. There seems to be no systematic effort to exploit the Internet and establish a strong global presence, as many other U. S. based corporations have done. The overall qualitative company analysis of Home Depot shows excellence in and focus on growing the core business, with limited forays in diversification, and weak attempts to extend the business to all available markets. Quantified company analysis leads to the same conclusion: Home Depot yields high short-term cash, but seems to be low on initiatives for new investment. 2005 Gross Profit, at over $27 billion, is more than a third of sales revenue. This is quite extraordinary for a business without proprietary products or technology. It reflects the success of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s basic philosophy of achieving economies of scale (Roush, 1999). The 2005 achievement is no Ã¢â¬Ëflash in the panÃ¢â¬â¢ for the company has an impressive record of 5 years of operating margin expansion. Long term debt is less than 10% of equity, indicating some possible diffidence of company management about future prospects. It does not augur well for investors who look for superior growth opportunities. The 2005 Quick Ration is below 0. indicating efficiency in purchasing and logistics, with due leverage of its commanding market share and brand strength. It is clear that Home Depot is a successful and profitable enterprise, though it is inadequately geared to exploit new opportunities and emergent market trends. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financials and business structure indicate that it may have already crested its best years, especially with respect to the limitations to further growth in North America. Segregated accounts for operations in China are not available in the public domain, but it appears that the company has not matched its historical success in a new continent. The entrepreneurial origins of Home Depot may not be entirely relevant for the professionalism demanded by a global market environment. Economics High volumes at low prices are at the heart of the business model (Roush, 1999). The network of over 2 thousand retail stores, with national spread in the United States, and enviable brand equity, combine to attract a plethora of suppliers with apparent deep discounts for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s endorsement. The economics of Home Depot act as an entry barrier, preventing regional competitors from attacking its market share. High cash generation puts Home Depot in a formidable bargaining position, and with the power to sustain predatory pricing offers. The Home Depot economic model has deeper roots in people than in numbers! Decades of intensive training and close interaction between the founders and front-line employees (Roush, 1999) make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stores more than mere warehouses of branded goods. Home Depot emphasizes customer education, which attracts middle-class first time home buyers in sustained and large numbers. The company has carved a large segment in the U.Ã S. market with such deep footprints that they are almost impossible for newcomers to erase. Accounting Home Depot is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (Home Depot Inc, 2007). It has met all reporting and disclosure requirements without any exceptions on record. Auditor comments on its financial statements show adequate compliance with statutory accounting standards. It is apparent that the company has an adequate accounting system, which is able to capture details of millions of transactions in reliable manner. Though the Management Information Systems of Home Depot are not in the public domain, it is possible to observe that even statutory treasury functions are advantageous for the company. The control of such a large number of sales items spread trans-nationally over such a large number of locations, would itself serve as an entry barrier for a new entrant. The company must excel in systems development, even if some parts are outsourced, to account correctly for such a large number of daily transactions. The Home Depot accounting system is therefore a significant non-financial asset of the corporation. Such systems have large future profit potentials if the company diversifies and enters new markets. Finance Earnings have grown by more than 20% for 4 consecutive years (A Portrait of Growth, 2007). Cash generation exceeds $7 billion. Total assets are about $44 billion. The equity base is stable at just over 2 billion shares, but long term debt is just 9. 9% of equity. The company is amazingly liquid for a business, which on paper should be most vulnerable to the vagaries of customer demand. The Current Ratio is just 1. 7, which is remarkable for so many items on sale across more than 2 thousand depots. Return on Investment in 18. 31, which exceed expected performance for a business without patents and proprietary technologies. Home Depot has a sterling financial performance, and is extremely sound by all financial yardsticks. However, the equity is not adequately leveraged. It appears that the management does not have new ideas about the future, though the business segment in which it operates is full of technological, economic, spatial, and demographic changes. Even the Current and Quick ratios, while admirable from an accountantÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, may be questioned in terms of inventories of scare materials such as wood. Overall, finance has opportunities to excel as a function when a company grows aggressively, makes ambitious expansion plans, and deals in multiple currencies. The financial waters of Home Depot are placid! Marketing The Finance function of Home Depot may be a quiet place, but Marketing is a dynamic function for the company! Excellence in customer service is a founding value of the company (Roush, 1999). Much of this is achieved through intensive training programs, and by innovation in store design. It is hard to match the incomparable product and service combination of Home Depot and it is apparent that the company has a strong understanding of middle-class Americans as a customer segment. All home improvement needs can be met at the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stores, and customers have come to rely on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s pricing for a wide variety of tools and fixtures. The company brand enjoys top-of-the-mind recall, and has strong associations with the generic product category of retail home improvement. The do-it-yourself product category is very large in most sections of U. S. society, so Home Depot has a durable line of revenue by dominating this market. The business calls for deep understanding of the multi-faceted needs of home owners, and Home Depot has nurtured a special bonding with typical customers ever since its inception. The brand loyalty is extremely strong and has not been broken by any competitor as yet. The company has such a strong hold on the market that new manufacturers of appliances, fittings, and surfaces, are forced to enter the market through Home Depot stores. Customer education is a key consideration at Home Depot (Roush, 1999). This serves to protect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market shares for even the most generic product lines, because no one else matches the information needs of new home owners, or older ones who encounter new problems in their properties. Since the company also offers favorable pricing, customers have little motivation to switch loyalties. Repeat custom is ensured through universal customer satisfaction. There is also plenty of space devoted to do-it-for-me market segments, which combines well with the wholesale business (now on the block for sale) to bring in valuable endorsements from experts in the professional home repair and redecoration businesses. Customers routinely visit Home Depot without any specific product in mind, or even without fully knowing what exactly they need to buy. The friendly advice which is easily and freely available at Home Depot serves to hook customers and has them returning for all home improvement needs. The service also serves to expand the overall market for home improvement, encouraging home owners to take on tasks which they may have left unattended or passed on to service providers, were it not for the guidelines forthcoming from the stores of Home Depot. The encouraging ambience in the stores of Home Depot is reinforced by wise and timely mass media communication. By advertising on a NASCAR theme on television (A Portrait of Growth, 2007) the company shows deep appreciation of its typical customer cluster, and their preferences. Home Depot is also an official NFL sponsor, which is most appropriate considering the profile of the typical customer who shops at Home Depot, and who is responsible for the vast majority of home improvement decisions. Home Depot excels in all aspects of Marketing with sharp focus on a targeted segment. The Marketing Mix is a coordinated mix of product and service elements guaranteed to ensure repeat custom and durable brand loyalties. Though Home Depot has not slackened its intensive marketing efforts to this day, the residual effects of the goodwill it has generated can stand it in good stead for years. It is considered to be one of the best retailers in North America by customers, associates, and peers alike. Management The Chief Executive Officer and senior Legal and Human Resources personnel have left the company in the last 3 months ending February 2007 (A Portrait of Growth, 2007). All the vacancies have been filled by internal promotions. Such moves would indicate strong management resistance to proposed changes of basic direction, and a determination to persist with established business patterns. The implications are even clearer for a company such as Home Depot, with strong traditions for developing and depending on people. The possible power struggle may have left significant sections of the remaining staff in turmoil, and perhaps now actively searching for alternate jobs. The former Chief Executive Officer is bound by a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s no-compete clause, and cannot solicit employees to leave and join in his other ventures for the next few years: such clauses in separation contracts also suggest that many people in Home Depot may want to search for alternate jobs as soon as they have options. There is no merit in this matter as far as Home DepotÃ¢â¬â¢s future prospects are concerned. There is worse conflict with a major share-holder as well, over strategic direction (A Portrait of Growth, 2007). The share-holder entity, which is professionally managed, has merely asked for an independent strategy review, which is not something against the best interests of Home Depot. However, the Board has decided to oppose the constructive resolution. Reviews by outsiders are never binding on clients, so the managementÃ¢â¬â¢s intransigence in this matter leaves room for doubt about cohesion at the top of the hierarchy. It is apparent that the company is divided between proponents of change, and a powerful group which favors the status-quo-ante. Though Home Depot has a spectacular performance record, it is true that the 21st century global market is quite different from domestic USA towards the end of the last millennium. New demographic segments of the wealthy, and of some immigrants, have emerged even within the strong hold of the home market, so a recasting of strategy seems in order, even if such an exercise were to conclude that the company is already on the right course. Hands on Human Resources Management, with emphasis on training (Roush, 1999) formed the template of the early success of Home Depot. However, a modern corporation cannot survive on breakfast meetings between employees and founders alone! Diversity concerns have certainly altered the composition of the work force, so new ways of managing people and deploying resources are inevitable. The present Home Depot management may have become prisoners of past achievement, preferring to stay with a course which may not be appropriate any longer. While internal promotions are creditable to a certain extent, Boards also need infusion of new perspectives from other successful companies. By filling all the recent vacancies internally, Home Depot may have deprived itself of valuable perspectives from the street. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s close association with middle-class America may become a limitation as it is forced to engage with unfamiliar markets and new customer types. Overall, serious discontinuities are evident in the highest echelons of Home Depot.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Part 1: Graphical Representation Part 2: Summary of argument In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Fossil Fuels Improve the PlanetÃ¢â¬ (Epstein, 2013), Alex EpsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s main claim was that fossil fuels should be used without restriction as they provide reliable and affordable energy that improves the lives of mankind. Aiming to convince the reader fossil fuels should be freely used, he first argued that the energy provided by fossil fuels is vital to the health and well-being of mankind. He supported this by stating that processes such as purifying water, mass production of medicine and fresh food, heating and construction are vital in allowing mankind to lead healthy lives and being able to cope in harsh climates. Epstein stressed that none of these things would exist in the modern world without the energy from fossil fuels. Next, he argued that alternatives like renewable energy are not effective. He asserts that renewable energy is unreliable, not cost effective and also unable to be mass-produced. He supported this by saying that even after years of investments from many countries only accounts for less than 0.5% of the planets energy. Finally, Epstein concluded by stating that fossil fuels are not Ã¢â¬Å"dirty energyÃ¢â¬ . He supported this by saying current technology can reduce waste produced in using fossil fuels to a minimum. He argued that since all processes create some waste, any process can be considered Ã¢â¬Å"dirtyÃ¢â¬ and rejected. Epstein hence contended that mankind should focus on building better lives by reaping the benefits of using fossil fuels rather than worrying about whether processes were Ã¢â¬Å"dirtyÃ¢â¬ or not. Part 3: Evaluation of argument EpsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s first argument is that the energy provided by fossil fuels is vital to the health and well-being of mankind. The assumption he makes in his argument is that burning fossil fuels is the largest or sole provider of energy to mankind. This is validated by empirical data collected on aÃ global scale from The World Energy Outlook 2013 (International Energy Agency, 2013) which recorded that 82% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s total energy supply came from fossil fuels in 2011 and will likely only fall to 75% in 2035, remaining the major source of energy for years to come. The argument uses deductive reasoning to prove that the energy provided by fossil fuels is vital to the health and well-being of mankind based on the premise that the energy powers important machines and processes that mankind needs to thrive. Epstein supports this by listing processes such as purifying water, the mass production of medicine and fresh food, heating and construction. He states that these processes provides necessities that are key in keep sickness at bay and allowing mankind to cope with the often harsh climate, leading to what he claims to be the healthiest and cleanest living environment in human history. The evidence Epstein provides shows that the affordable reliable energy from fossil fuels provides important necessities such as clean water and medicine that is vital to the health and well-being of mankind. This is congruent to Dennis AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s points in Ã¢â¬Å"World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of SustainabilityÃ¢â¬ (United Nations Development Programme, 2000, Chapter 11 p.394) where he reports that the presence of modern sources of energy can improve the standards of living for billions of people across the globe, especially those in developing countries who lack access to basic services and necessities similar to those described by Epstein due to consumption levels of energy being far lower than those in industrialized countries. This shows the state of people who lack access to modern energy and how their lives can be greatly improved if more energy was available to them. Therefore since EpsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s argument uses deductive reasoning to prove that the energy provided by fossil fuels is vital to the health and well-being of mankind, since the premise is true, the conclusion of the argument is valid. References Anderson, D. United Nations Development Programme, United Nations. & World Energy Council. (2000). World Energy Assessment: Energy and the challenge of sustainability. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme In: Chapter 11 Energy and Economic Prosperity. (P.394-411) Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/ International Energy Agency & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2013). World energy outlook 2013. Paris: OECD/IEA. Retrieved from http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/ EpsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s second argument is that alternative sources of energy to fossil fuels are not as effective. The argument uses inductive reasoning as Epstein focuses on 2 alternative sources of energy and attempts to convince the reader of his argument based on their observed limitations. The premises offered are that renewable energy such as solar and wind is unreliable, not cost effective and also unable to be mass-produced. He is able to support this with his claim that even after years of investments from many countries renewable energy only accounts for less than 0.5% of the planets energy. He also supports this by quoting examples of some richer countries that have been unsuccessful in making renewable energies usable on a larger scale even after spending large sums of money, resulting in rising youth unemployment rates as high as 50% in Spain and electrical prices doubling in the case of Germany. These cases and facts accurately shows the limitations of renewable energies ment ioned in his premises. This is supported by Professor Barry Brook in his in-depth critique on renewable energy Ã¢â¬Å"Renewable LimitsÃ¢â¬ (Brook, 2009, TCASE 4 & 7) where he states that input for energy for solar and wind is unreliable and also shows how costly and economically unfeasible it is to make solar and wind plants reliable on a global scale. The report demonstrates this by calculating the large amounts of materials and investment needed to make each renewable energy source reliable on a global scale e.g. 1,250,000 tonnes of concrete and 335,000 tonnes of steel per day from 2010 to 2050 for wind power to be reliable. Therefore, the facts in the premises Epstein offers are true. However, he chooses to purely focus on solar and wind as alternatives to fossil fuels and not on other more promising alternative sources of energy such as hydroelectric power or nuclear. Although he mentions them in his argument, acknowledging them as able to provide more significant and reliabl e power compared to solar and wind, Epstein fails to go any further in depth than that. The World Energy Outlook 2012 (International Energy Agency, 2012) showed that renewable energy is likely to grow to become the second-largest energy source by 2015, with its share of global power generation rising from 20% in 2010 to 31% by 2035 mostly stemming from hydroelectric power and nuclear power. Although the report states that this depends on continued subsidies, subsidies for renewable energy are also projected to reach $240 billion per year in 2035 from $44 billion in 2010, for 31% of global power. The report suggests that given enough time renewables like hydroelectric power and nuclear could be produced on a wide enough scale to compete with fossil fuels. This shows that the other alternatives not evaluated fully by Epstein are definitely gaining traction and support around the world and are able to produce affordable and reliable energy as well, potentially on a global scale given time. Although he claims to have focused only on solar and wind as environmentalists , opponents of fossil fuels, often only champion solar and wind power over nuclear and hydroelectric power, it is a very weak reason to not go into detail about these alternatives that are clearly gaining much traction and support around the world as shown in the source. Hence, Epstein fails to consider the full scope of alternatives in his argument and seems to focus only on alternatives that have clear limitations to strengthen his argument. Since his argument uses inductive reasoning to prove that alternative sources of energy to fossil fuels are not effective, based on the premises provided not painting a complete picture of the issue at hand, and the fact that the alternatives ignored show more promise than the ones mentioned in the premises, his argument is weak and not convincing. References Brook, B (2009). Renewable Limits | Brave New Climate. Retrieved from http://bravenewclimate.com/renewable-limits/ International Energy Agency & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2012). World energy outlook 2012. Paris: OECD/IEA. Retrieved from http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/
Friday, September 27, 2019
Used a different classification method to describe types of living environments - Essay Example Friedman helped me come up with three common classes of upper class, middle class, and low class living environments that I will discuss in the following paper. The low class of a household considers the house a gallery. The house obviously should be clean and organized. The position of each item, whether hanging, resting, or on the floor is extremely composed (Friedman 127). The color scheme harmonizes with the excellent lighting of the room. Such a design should make one feel experience something similar to one of the images shown in any edition of the Ã¢â¬Å"Architectural Digest.Ã¢â¬ The latest styles, expert touches, and thoroughly chosen pieces are the marks of the low class. Under the middle class, practicality is the main theme. Middle classes are minimalists who believe in just acquiring what is needed and ignoring or discarding anything supplementary. Concerns about the surrounding play a vital role when purchasing commodities with extremely few properly chosen items (Friedman 159). Such a household will take pleasure in portraying souvenirs from a recent trip along with hanging some framed images or paintings. A middle class household will refrain from too much consumption and will attempt to fit as much utility as possible from every item. Lastly, the household of an upper class individual or family is full of both necessary and complementary things. Finding extra space or room on a wall for hanging pieces of art in such a household becomes difficult for a designer. Reading material is scattered across the room (Friedman 171). Paper cutouts and memory notes are jammed under magnets on the fridge and stuck on walls in other rooms. An upper class resident appears to focus less on the appearance of the house and more on coziness. Reducing stress is nearly a slogan for an upper class household. As a result, an exceptionally clean show house is not a priority for those in the upper class group. For instance, putting dishes
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The Crusades - Research Paper Example Scholars commonly attempt to mark crusades as the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ military expeditions against the Muslims who were then occupying the holy places in Jerusalem. In this sense, there were about four major crusades which were led during this period. But the most successful one of all these crusades was the First one in which the Crusaders could successfully occupy Antioch and Jerusalem, two most important cities of the Muslims.1 But the First Crusade was important not only for its success but also for its historical, sociopolitical and cultural background. Indeed, though on the surface level, it was a response to Pope UrbanÃ¢â¬â¢s (II) call, it was, in reality, the reflection of an age which had experienced heavy conflict between Monarchy and Church. During the 11th century, the conflict between the State and the Church began with the Investiture Controversy which was a Ã¢â¬Å"dispute between King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII concerning who would appoint bishopsÃ¢â¬ 2. Beside th is state-church conflict, the whole religious system got divided into a number of groups and subgroups. But the most important religious schism was the East-West Schism. Scholars claim that along with other socioeconomic and cultural factors, the state-church conflict and the East-West Schism played a crucial role in preparing the plot of the First Crusade. Moreover, this was the only one successful whereas all of the following crusades ended in smoke. In this paper, I will discuss what factors work behind the materialization of the First Crusade and why it became successful whereas the Second Crusade failed. Though it is commonly believed that the first Crusade was mainly the result of Common EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ spontaneous response to Pope UrbanÃ¢â¬â¢s (II) call, it was basically the outcome of the reformist soul of the early 11th century as well as a reaction to other contemporary sociopolitical and religious events of that era.3 A close scrutiny of the historical contexts of the First Crusade will necessarily show that it was related to the sociopolitical and religious zeal and the state-church conflict in a number of ways. So, the First Crusade was more of a sociopolitical event than a pure spiritual response of the common people. In fact, Pope UrbanÃ¢â¬â¢s religious stance tends to hide other sociopolitical aspects of the First Crusade. This religious trend of the crusade further tends to hide the fact that though Pope Urban could motivate common people by manipulating their religiosity, his call for the Crusade was not purely religious. Rather it was Pope UrbanÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to consolidate his power over the state.4 In fact, due to the lack of any primary document on Pope UrbanÃ¢â¬â¢s intention behind the First Crusade, the event remains open to interpretation. HistoriansÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretations about the drives of the First Crusades are based mainly on three points: a. the 11th century religious reform movement, b. the SeldjukÃ¢â¬â¢s or the Mu slimsÃ¢â¬â¢ threat which the Eastern Roman Orthodoxy was facing during those days, c. consolidation of PapacyÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s power as well as on entire European Christendom. A critical analysis of the factors behind the First Crusade will show that all of these three causes had played equal role in organizing the First Crusade. SeldjukÃ¢â¬â¢s Threat in the East as a Primary Cause of First Crusade Some historians often attempt to underestimate the
THEORY, PRACTICE AND EVIDENCE IN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY A DYNAMIC TRILOGY - Essay Example Dissociative disorders may be thought of in terms of adaptation. The dissociative response to stress has served an adaptive role in the patient's life in the past in that it has protected the person against the full-blown impact of intense emotional pain and trauma. By the time someone with dissociative problems is in treatment or is seen by an occupational therapist, the dissociate is no longer adaptive. It interferes with the person's ability to face and cope with reality, and thus with the ability to function. The purpose of occupational therapy treatment for patients with dissociative disorders is twofold. Patients need first to recognize their fear of experiencing emotions and begin to allow and accept their feelings. They need to recognize formerly traumatic events that hold many conflicting, painful feelings for them. Occupational therapy and expressive and cognitive media can aid in individual's exploration toward self-awareness. Second, occupational therapy can help people learn new functional ways of coping when their fears interfere with functioning and daily life. The acknowledgement and acceptance of painful emotions can be very frightening for patients with dissociative disorders who understandably may have a difficult time choosing to face their difficult realities over choosing a more familiar and comfortable escape. It takes time and the development of a trustworthy therapeutic relationship for patients to be willing to risk this change. Part of "accepting" feelings involves learning more effective ways to cope with the accompanying pain rather than escaping into the altered reality or different personality. This involves, first, learning to recognize personal patterns of dissociation - in other words, when, where, how and under what circumstances dissociation tends to occur - in order to avoid using these old patterns when stress increases. Second, it involves relearning and learning specific new strategies for coping with stresses that may have induced the person to dissociate in the first place. The integrating of personalities means that some personalities will no longer exist as separate and distinct. Alters typically perform specific, compartmentalized functions. Talents and skills that may have resided with one alter may thus be lost, resulting in a loss of familiar ways of coping. Therefore, the newly integrated individual may have much to relearn. An individual will typically have learned to dissociate to the exclusion of learning other, adaptive ways of coping. In this case, unfamiliar new ways of coping must be learned and new roles may have to be taken over and learned by the remaining personality or personalities. Occupational therapists, in conjunction with other members of the treatment team, can assist patients with dissociative disorders in all the ways described in the succeeding sections of the paper. The Therapeutic Approach Occupational Therapists can aid the therapy team by gathering historical information. This may often be expressed through a nonverbal medium (art, drawing, sculpting, and crafts) and thus is more likely to be facilitated in the occupational therapy process than in other therapies. Through the same process, occupational therapists can learn general information about specific alter personalities such as their names, ages, reasons why they were created and functions they serve for the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Is the developmental state strengthened or weakened by globalization and global governance - Essay Example This made them the envy of the whole world because they were able to double their economies in a span of ten years. Ten years is a short period indeed as compared to fifty years that industrialized countries such as the United States of America and United Kingdom took to double their economies. The high economic growth rates and development in developmental states is attributable to the strength of a government when it genuinely and intelligently decides to engage its citizens and economic agents like companies to drive economic growth and development. Such governments put up key infrastructures and critical institutions and encourage its citizens to do businesses. Globalization and global governance offers both opportunities and threats to developmental states. They are the global engines in the twenty-first century and cannot be assumed. Globalization affects every country in the world through interactions between and among members of different states as they trade, travel and sport. It also happens when different countries sign international agreements on trade, security, environment and health. Is the developmental state strengthened or weakened by globalization and global governance? This question depends on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s features, it geographical positioning and leadership styles. Singapore is a developmental state that has benefited from globalization while Japan, South Korea and Malaysia seemed to have been shaken. A developmental state refers to an autonomous government (state) that has the capacity to plan and direct their own economies to ensure that resources are optimally allocated to achieve economic growth and development. Low (2004) asserts that developmental states exhibit authoritarian leadership styles and paternalistic governments. The state through its influential apparatus formulates and pursues national visions, missions and strategies that can deliver
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Comparison of Tate Modern and Saatchi Gallery - Essay Example The essay "Comparison of Tate Modern and Saatchi Gallery" compares two galleries and analyzes success and failure of them. Saatchi Gallery on the other hand, failed mainly due to poor choice of locations and art displays, inadequate architectural design and conversion of former industrial buildings.The Tate Modern gallery was constructed in a building that was formerly a disused power station. The designer of the original Bankside station was Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and it was built between 1947 and 1963. The western half of the structure was built with a chimney in 1952, while the eastern part of the building started operations in 1963. The power station was closed in 1981 as oil prices rose, because it was no longer economical to generate electricity through this method. Tate got an option on the site in 1981, which it exercised in 1994 and during this period, the building continued to remain unoccupied. Tate however, saw the potential in the now redundant Bankside power station; i t offered several advantages such as an enormous building with a large amount of available space, an architecturally superior construction proximity to historical sites such as St. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s Cathedral and the rebuilt Globe theatre. The process of creating Tate Modern started in May 1994, when the Tate gallery in London Announced that it would be creating a huge new gallery for the specific purpose of exhibiting modern international works of art. As Sabbagh points out, the project appeared to be doomed.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Write a two or three page review of one of the following films - Essay Example This is because in Ecuador, it would be easy to get away from losing the case by lobbying the government into applying loose regulations. The first phase of the trials consists of field inspections. Attorneys Adolfo Callejas and Diego Larrea represent the defendants while attorney Pablo Fajardo represents the plaintiffs. Fajardo wons Goldman Environmental prize in 2008. Steven Donziger is another lawyer and FajardoÃ¢â¬â¢s advisor/the plaintiffsÃ¢â¬â¢ consulting attorney. Fajardo accuses Chevron-Texaco of drillingÃ pits in its operations and later covering them with hazardous waste. Petroleum is one of the toxic wastes in the pits. As evidence, he digs the ground and exposes crude oil-mixed soil two inches below the surface. He claims that Chevron-Texaco dumped more than one billon gallons of poisonous and toxic water into rivers, which contaminated drinking water making people fall sick Ã¢â¬â they suffered from and died of cancer and leukemia. Since the actors are living in that reality, their dialogs and actions are vivid and natural. In addition, to confront this huge and powerful international corporate co mpany, the plaintiffs try to use sources such as magazines, media and celebrities as much as possible. Among the witnesses in the film is a mother who claims that her 18-year-old daughter is sick. She says that since she needed money for her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s medical treatment, she bought chicken, which she intended to raise and then sell. However, they died because of drinking contaminated water. The mother starts crying. The defendants blame PetroEcuador claiming that they handed over to them in 1992. They claim that this case is not purely for clean up but that it is for money. Arguing that the cause of EcuadoreansÃ¢â¬â¢ health problem has nothing to do with oil, Sara McMillen, Chevron-TexacoÃ¢â¬â¢s chief environmental scientist, claims that living in a poor region is the cause. He adds that since they lack sewage treatment, they drink water with great amount of
Sunday, September 22, 2019
How far do the values of Kino Essay A. The Novelette, The Pearl was written by John Steinbeck in 1944. Steinbeck is a magnificent author who uses dramatic, narrative and musical themes all together . e. g. the song of evil and the song of family to convey his idea effectively. He is able to attain an effect on the reader without lengthy details on emotions, places etc. All his novels are set in Salinas Valley and the main themes of his novels are on man versus nature and how man abuses it. Drama, visual effects and music all blend together in Steinbecks novel making it an all time classic. The Pearl is the story about Kino (Main character Mexican pearl diver) who is the leader of his tribe. In the story he goes on to finding a pearl, which affects him greatly. The pearl of the world gives him dreams of wealth and prosperity but all this changes when things dont turn out the way he planned them to. The pearl gives him suffering and brings out the evil in man. At the beginning of the novel we see the Mexicans oneness with nature as they made songs about it which brought them happiness. The fisherfolks lives were very simple as they lived in poverty and yet they enjoyed the fruits of nature. They lived in brush houses and ate simple food like hot corn-cake. Their sense of unity in the family is shown as they hardly communicate through words because they know what and how one another thinks. (Page 10)- They had spoken once, but there is not need for speech if it is only a habit anyway. Songs were important in their culture as they linked everything to music. The tribe was so closely united and were always ready to help each other. We see this when all the neighbors assist Kino when he takes Coyotito to the doctor for the scorpion bite as a child was a most important thing in life. Another example of closeness is when the tribe goes with Kino to sell the pearl as it a historic event as one of their members are going to get a lot of money. This all shows the loyalty of the neighbors. The tribe is superstitious and at the same time religious, as it is shown to us when Juana prays and chants magic at the same time when seeing the scorpion. They had experience in treating the dangers of nature . e. g. scorpion bites. Both Kino and Juana are superstitious and this is evident when they find the pearl of the world, they hid excitement and the pageant Gods were angry at them. The only thing that made the tribe unhappy was the whites treatment towards them which they thought was unjust. The whites brought fear and distrust . e. g. the way the doctor looks after and treats the rich rather than the poor. The poor lived in brush houses while the rich lived in stone and plaster houses. The whites poison the minds of the tribe as they are victims of ignorance and illiteracy. They were made to believe that their remedies were inferior to those of the white when in most cases they were not. The corrupted values of the whites are seen when the doctor misuses his skills and knowledge to make the baby sick instead of curing him. There is also ill-treatment of the beggars; we see this when they dont help Kino in finding a doctor and they feel it is a source of entertainment when a fisherman comes for help in the city. Eg:(When Kino wants to find a doctor for his son as he got bitten by a scorpion, and instead of the beggars helping Kino finding one, they made fun of him) The irony is that the beggars have no dignity compared to the fishermen who work for a living. When the tribe found the pearl they never thought of riches, only things that will help them where as compared to the whites they only thought of riches and themselves e. g. the doctor was fond of rich silk and expensive clothes compared to the fisher folks who just wore rags. Here a sense of irony is shown as the fisher folks are the whites main source of income and despite this, they still feel disgusted by the fisher folks. The priest was also a disgrace to religion as he too only thought about himself and riches as they wanted materialistic things. We also see how the whites treat their culture as to be very inferior and at the same time exploit them because the tribe is illiterate. Kino represents all the men in the tribe, he was the head of the family and showed the superiority of men e. g. when he eats first in his family and makes decisions. He is a protective father. This is evident when we see him confront the three trackers and when he tries to save his son from the scorpion bite. We see how the pearl changes him from a dependable, hard working man to a man who wants power. The main thing of a man is to have a canoe, as it was a sign of life. The tribe was of fishermen and they depend on canoe to fish in. Here we see Kinos loyalty to the family and family possessions as we see how he valued his canoe which he got from his grandfather-(Kinos grandfather had brought it from Nayarit, and he had given it to Kinos father, and so it had come to Kino) This is how the canoe is passed down from generation to generation.. A canoe was passed down from ancestors and without one they wouldnt be able to get married as it would be hard to support a family. The canoe was a symbol of livelihood, prosperity, independence and survival. Many things were passed down from generations such as Pearl diving, fishing and use of seaweed for remedies. Kinos life is focused on his family whom he loved a lot. His love for Juana is shown when he wants the pearl to help them in getting married. The closeness and the sense of brotherly unity between Kino and his brother Tomas, they gain from the values of their forefathers, as we see how Tomas advises him about the pearl and also helps Kino when the pearl brings bad luck to him. Kino shows his care for the races when he wants the pearl to bring prosperity to the tribe rather than to himself alone we see how he wants education for his son as with education they wouldnt be victims to the whites, he wants his son to spread knowledge and understanding to his tribe in the future through the things he learned. Kino is a skilled fighter where his response to danger is fierce and quick. It is a primitive instinct of the tribe. He is known as a noble savage; he is uncorrupted by a false coating of civilization that we see through the behavior and character of the doctor, priest and the pearl trader. The primitive violent reaction is shown when he attacks the thief that comes and robs him and when he murders one of the attackers in self-defense. When Kino finds a big hole in his canoe there is anger and deep sorrow as without a canoe a man is helpless. He is like a machine when he flees from the attacker to high ground like an instinct of an animal. There is stubborn courage in Kino; he displays a tragic courage for he is a man opposing all the forces against him. We see Kino is a man constant struggle against any prison that binds him. We see at the end of the story Kinos emotion when he loses his son and everything he owns because of the evil pearl and so a result he throws the pearl where it belongs. The situation of Kino could have happened to anyone in the tribe as all he imagined was that everyone would share his joy, but he was wrong. Juana represents all the females in the tribe as a womans character was obedient and respected. Her femininity was shown when she waits for Kino to finish eating and then she would start eating. She respected her husband by making him choose decisions. Juana is an ideal partner for Kino like her instincts when she wants to throw the pearl, and by showing unquestionable loyalty by wanting to stay with Kino and refuses to leave him even though it meant life or death for her and her baby. She shows strength when Kino is weakened by the evil of the pearl. Because of this action Kino draws strength to her loyalty. When Kino said to Juana I am a man he meant that he was half insane and half god and she knew in her womans soul that the forces of nature and society would crush him in the end, yet she needed such a man. Sometimes the female makes decisions for the men as a desperate measure like when she tells Kino to throw away the pearl. Both Kino and Juana were superstitious when finding the pearl and hence both of them suffered from the evil it brought as their simplicity and gullibility made them unaware about the pearls poison and the pain it brought as they suffered a terrible loss and were neglected by society. The dream Kino conjured from its shiny surface was to bring sorrow and death, as too much good luck gave them something bad at the end. But at last he had learnt his lesson and throws the pearl back into the sea where it belongs. There is always a limit to which you can make use of something. Once you begin to abuse it you pay the consequences and this is what happened. Culture is a very important aspect of life as not only is it a symbol/identity but it is also something which no body can take away from you as it becomes part of you. Every culture has its own occasions, celebrations, beliefs, dress etc. In The Pearl John Steinbeck used Kino and Juana very specifically to portray the importance of culture and the way things go about in a particular culture. Eg: the way the canoe was passed down from generation to generation etc.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Bumper Stickers to Express Views Sticking It to Bumper Stickers Think for a second about how social media has changed the way people interact with one another; websites like Facebook and Twitter have provided a highway of free expression. People can express their views openly and confidently without much concern about what someone with an opposing view might think. As a result, said websites are teeming with opinions. Sure, there are some benefits to having means to express ones values freely and openly, however this becomes problematic when the act of expression closes off the possibility for conversation. When people are flooded with personal opinions, as seen on the likes of Facebook and Twitter, there is no conversation or even a healthy debate. There is only opinion. This phenomenon is not limited, nor began, with social media. Yet, there is another medium for the use of language to convey peoples values and identities: the bumper sticker. As much as social media plays a central role in the lives of many Americans, the bumper sticker has become a vehicle for strong public expression. Almost nowhere else in this society can people show their feelings to such a large audience with so little effort. Partisan politics may have once been the basis of bumper sticker content, especially after World War II and at the height of the Cold War when propaganda was so pertinent. Yet nowadays, just a quick glance at parked cars shows that a broad range of themes exist (Newbagen). Whether it be advice on driving etiquette Brighten my day, get off the road existential commentary A bad day at the beach beats a good day at the office or comments about U.S. foreign policy -, bumper stickers provide a window into a persons political, philosophical, and socioeconomic ideologies. Bumper stickers themselves are not problematic for society. However, similar to social media, bumper stickers dont elicit conversation and instead spark controv ersy, society grows more and more divided. Expressing opinions publicly has become a gauntlet of disaster. Societys problem with public display of opinion is growing because bumper stickers spark controversy and contribute to an argumentative environment. Since the definition of success in this environment is based on one-upmanship and/or criticism, the path to bringing people back together starts with using value in oneself as a means of expression rather than expressing ones values. The controversy created by bumper stickers is rooted in the philosophy behind bumper stickers. First, the motivation behind using bumper stickers must be uncovered. People are always trying to make their beliefs and values known. Somehow, by projecting ones beliefs and values to the outside world an identity crisis is averted. A person needs the world to know what he stands for in order to reach a self-understanding. Bumper stickers allow for this expression. Have a kid on the honor roll? Great! Put on that bumper sticker and tell the world. Fan of sports team X? Perfect! Theres a bumper sticker for that. Voting Democrat in the next election? Might as well use the back of the car to show exactly that. These stickers represent a unique paradox. On the one hand, they are distinctly personal, attached to the owners car for friends to see. On the other hand, they are anonymous. The vast majority of readers are unknown to the bearer of the sticker. This allows for the expression of highly personal opinions about strongly held views to a large audience without any commitment to interact with them. This combination of personal statement and anonymity provides the opportunity for the expression of public emotion not usually available to ordinary people in their daily routine, ultimately giving way to create controversy. Yes, bumper stickers are short, catchy, and seemingly harmless, but because of their nature they contribute to a growing problem in society. This can be seen through the concept known as bumper sticker philosophy, (Haussmen). Basically, the bumper sticker philosophy is that because bumper stickers are such short messages, it is impossible to fit an entire philosophy or ideology on the back of your car. It is simply not possible to tell the entire story. The ideology shown is only superficial. Going along this line of reasoning, this allows bumper stickers to oversimplify social issues. People see them in a hurry and theres no time to digest the argument . Bumper stickers dont bring forth conversation, but rather end the conversation with a cursory position on any given issue. This controversy has created a hostile, argumentative environment which is dividing society more and more. Because the ideology shown on a bumper sticker is superficial, the reaction to seeing a bumper sticker is most likely also superficial. After all, how can an onlooker derive an entire ideology or philosophy from such a short message. The reactions are knee-jerk, pure gut instinct. Take for example a story from Denise Grier. Her son was threatened jail time for not removing a bumper sticker that read Bush sucks. Dick Cheney too (Haynsworth). Clearly, Griers son was expressing his political beliefs and the police had an alternative opinion. There is nothing wrong or problematic with having different viewpoints, especially when it comes to politics. There was no conflict until the bumper sticker evoked a knee-jerk reaction. Because there was only a bumper sticker and a reaction, and no discussion, a conflict was created. People display bumper stickers to either connect to a communi ty or to argue against one, but because there isnt a complete ideology which causes an instinctive violent, judgmental reaction, a connection cant be formed and society slips farther apart. There are, however, benefits to having an argumentative environment; one that fosters conversation and debate. Society needs opposing viewpoints in order to progress. The world was flat until someone questioned it. Furthermore, there is a connection between expression and identity. Hilde Lindemann, in her book Holding and Letting Go: The Social Practice of Personal Identities, articulates, To have livedas a person is to have taken my proper place in the social world that lets us make selves of each other, (159). Lindemann here identifies why being an individual with personal beliefs matters morally, why it deserves closer philosophical attention, and also why it is so dependent on the many interpersonal practices of empathetic recognition through which people can see each other as their own person. Individuality and personhood are not qualities that one can seek and find within a particular human specimen. Instead, personhood is something people reify through actions, attitudes, and attunements toward others. Both socially and morally, people judge others and hold them in certain lights. Identities are maintained through stories about what matters most to a given person; his loves, hates, commitments, and so on. The moral personhood of individuals is then very different from the one envisioned by supporters of the view that personhood is just a collection of qualities or attributes that add up to something more than the sum of their parts; or, as a designation that does not refer to much of anything in particular, other than a desire for moral, social, and political recognition. Lindemann suggests that missing the background conditions of how people become persons is precisely where philosophy has taken a wrong turn. In a non-trivial way, what and who people are is not constituted solely by a collection of reasoned positions or endorsed choices, but by moral communities that work to create, or to undo, themselves and their individual members. Lindemann describe s the personal identity of individuals, To describe a moral practice we engage in constantly, but that has not received much recognition as a moral practice: it is the practice of initiating human beings into personhood and then holding them there, (ix). Lindemann is asserting that the acts of conversing and listening is fundamentally moral work that has the capacity to create the objects of its practices; but perhaps more relevant, also has the power to destroy. The need to criticize or out-preform someone diminishes personal beliefs and values, however people need personal beliefs. Control over the ideas, symbols, and meanings within society are central to the control of society itself. In a scientific study, Charles Case notes, The ruling ideas of each age have been the ideas of its ruling class. This classical analysis of the role of ideology in the struggle for domination over society has evolved into the more recent concept of hegemony. Hegemony theory asserts that the ruling elite control all institutions which disseminate ideas and values. Schools, churches, youth organization, the mass media, among others, all produce false consciousness to facilitate the maintenance of political and economic control by the ruling elite. Attempts are often made to limit or eliminate means for self expression. These attempts are typically met with creative innovations and use of non-conventional vehicles for communication. Jail inmates, for example, w ho are stripped of most normal roles, statues, and means for interaction make heavy an effective use of tattoos to display affiliations, personal uniqueness, perspectives, and philosophies. Modern urban society is characterized by interactions among anonymous strangers and communications received through mass media sources. Within this environment, very few opportunities exist for individuals to contribute to the cultural store of ideas, symbols, and perspectives. This perspective of symbolic interaction describes how the display of symbols and relationships create social and self identity. Through the acquisition and demonstration of desirable roles, values, and qualities, individuals seek to create and maintain an esteemed and acceptable self. Those whose abilities to define themselves are impaired by a predefinition imposed by society and are described as stigmatized. However, as seen in prison tattoos, public personal expression can also be used as a unifying power. The unifying factor of personal beliefs lie in both the motivation behind and in the act of expression. In the modern age of mass communication and urban life, the means and methods available to influence the discourse of ideology and symbols have proliferated. Prison tattoos, underground newspapers, pirate radio stations, and graffiti are examples of opportunities for common citizens to affect their cultural environment. The perspectives of conflict and symbolic interaction suggest that people have a need or desire to communicate symbolic messages to the persons who share the same social environment. The history of human cultural development is intimately tied to the accumulated development of symbols, meanings, and ways to share these symbolic meanings among a growing range of sources and recipients. Therefore, the possibility exists that people use these symbols, such as bumper stickers, to progress society. However, within modern urban environments, most of the symbolic meanings encountered by individuals come from commercial mass-mediated sources (Case). This means face-to-face sources of interactions and ideas such as schools and churches allow relatively little opportunity for individuals to offer their unique perspectives. People are not really expressing their own beliefs, but rather beliefs from a marketplace. The bumper sticker is, after all, a product that is bought and sold. Bumper stickers show the influence of marketing language, with its colloquial, pseudo-informality. Public expression of opinions is thus part of the shifting relationship between culture and commerce that puts the consumer in a seemingly new position. This is where change can occur. Its not possible to find ones own personhood when one is buying his values and beliefs from a marketplace. The conundrum is that people find their identity by expressing their values and their beliefs; however, the values and beliefs that people are currently expressing are not coming from themselves. How does that make sense? How can someone realistically make their own identity from an ideology that is not his own? Quite literally, people are getting value from the wrong place. People have become reflections of what society wants them to be. This is why society is breaking down. A collection of individuals creates society. But when there are no individuals, there isnt much of a society either. Creating more individuals is a step on the path to bringing people back together. Individuality can be formed when people recognize what they themselves believe in, not what something like a bumper sticker tells them to believe in. Therefore, this change must c ome from people. This is an issue about expression and identity. Something like outlawing bumper stickers wouldnt really do much good not to mention its not feasible either. No, this change will start with people looking inward for something to believe in, rather than outward for validation. When people look outward for validation, they are really looking for judgement; to be able to say that they fit in. However, if society was built by people who understand their personhood and believe in their own identity, they would be able to create their own society and thus eliminate the need to fit in. This in turn would stop people from expressing commercialized ideologies and would bring people closer together. The term express yourself might sound clichÃ ©, but it should be taken seriously. People just need to be themselves and understand who they really are. Creating a society of more individualized people is a solid foundation to start bringing people back together, but change probably wont be realized until people also change how they view others. People can have the same blood, brains, and emotions, but act hostile because they have different thoughts and opinions. People think being an individual means embracing what makes you different from society. While this can be an empowering thought for some, it has created a tear in society. Individuality should really lead to a path of connecting with others, not winning or losing or validation. Real personhood and individuality extends beyond valuing ones own opinions. Society cant come back together unless individuals are allowed to share their opinions without creating controversy. Works Cited Newhagen, John E., and Michael Ancell. The Expression of Emotion and Social Status in the Language of Bumper Stickers. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 14.3 (1995): 312-23. ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2016. Case, Charles E. Bumper Stickers and Car Signs Ideology and Identity. Journal of Popular Culture 26.3 (1992): 107. ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2016. Haussamen, Brock. PUNS, PUBLIC DISCOURSE AND POSTMODERNISM. Visible Language 31.1 (1997): 52. ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2016. Lindemann, Hilde. Holding and Letting Go: The Social Practice of Personal Identities. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014. Print. Haynsworth, Leslie. My Volvo, My Self: The (Largely Unintended) Existential Implications of Bumper Stickers. Fourth Genre 10.1 (2008): 21,34,200. ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2016.