Saturday, December 28, 2019
In Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis,Ã¢â¬ he introduces theories regarding repressed memories as a source for mental disturbances and methods of retrieving these memories. Freud introduces techniques such as dream interpretation, word association, and hypnosis as methods for treating symptoms of mental disturbances; it is for these discoveries that Sigmund Freud is considered the father of psychoanalysis. According to neuropsychologist Paul Broks, Ã¢â¬Å"Freud might also be considered one of the founders of neuropsychologyÃ¢â¬ (Broks 1). In Paul BroksÃ¢â¬â¢ essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Ego Trip: Denial, Defense Mechanisms, Repression,Ã¢â¬ Broks states that he believe that because many of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories have been disproven by modern technology and otherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"They cannot escape from the past and neglect present reality in its favorÃ¢â¬ (CP 73). Not everyone can walk past the monuments. Freud is held most famous for introducing psychoanalysis as a method of mental health treatment. Psychoanalysis is a psychological theory that investigates the conscious and subconscious minds with the goal of treating mental disturbances. Psychoanalysis essentially retrieves a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s repressed feelings and fears to the surface with techniques such as hypnosis, word association, dream interpretation, and hesitations and fumbles. Although Freud was not originally a fan of hypnosis, it was theorized to be an effective of way of channeling the subconscious mind. Word associations are the first things that come into mind. It goes straight through the id, so there is no time to channel the ego or superego. In other words, when someone says the first word that goes through their mind, it gives Freud a way to see into their subconscious mind and discover the trauma that the patient may have experienced. The patient does not have the opportunity to over think about what he is sayin g. According to Freud, dreams arouse feelings that are disguised and the unconscious mind can be investigated by tracking and interpreting dreams. An example of a hesitation or fumble is a Freudian slip, which is when someoneShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud And Its Impact On 20th Century Ego Psychology Essay1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalysis and the impact on 20th Century Ego Psychology Meghan Laubengeyer Temple University Psychologist, psychoanalyst, doctor of medicine, and author, Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the world of science and psychology were far from limited. The self and widely regarded scientist was born in Friedberg in 1856 where he lived before moving to Vienna, Germany, where he would later produce founding revelations at the birth of psychology as a scienceRead MoreAnalysis Of Holden Uses Defense Mechanisms1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconvinces Holden to buy some time with a prostitute, steals five bucks from Holden, and punches him. Instead of admitting his vulnerability, Holden states, Ã¢â¬Å"I pictured myself coming out of the goddam bathroom, dressed and all, with my automatic in my pocket...WhatÃ¢â¬â¢d I do, IÃ¢â¬â¢d walk down a few floors-holding onto my guts, blood leaking all over the place-and then IÃ¢â¬â¢d ring the elevator bell. As soon as old Maurice opened the doors, heÃ¢â¬â¢d see me...and he;s start screaming at me, in this very high-pitched, yellow-belly Read MoreHolden Uses Defense Mechanisms1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconvinces Holden to buy some time with a prostitute, steals five bucks from Holden, and punches him. Instead of admitting his vulnerability, Holden states, Ã¢â¬Å"I pictured myself coming out of the goddam bathroom, dressed and all, with my automatic in my pocket...WhatÃ¢â¬â¢d I do, IÃ¢â¬â¢d walk down a few floors-holding onto my guts, blood leaking all over the place-and then IÃ¢â¬â¢d ring the elevator bell. As soon as old Maurice opened the doors, heÃ¢â¬â¢d see me...and he;s start screaming at me, in this very high-pitched, yellow-bellyRead MoreSigmund Freud And Erik Erikson1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe contributions to this perspective include both Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Freud examined psychosexual theory and how those first childhood years of drives shape the personality. Thus, such drive names are the id, ego, and superego. The id emergences in the early stages of infancy, between 3 to 6 years o f age the superego or conscience appears and are shaped by parents and conforms to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. Moreover, Freud (1938;1973) five stages of too much or to the less parental satisfactionRead MoreSigmund Freud s The Bluest Eye Essay1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir mind? Inspired by his influential, Sigmund Freud observed and researched about human mind and behaviors. He examined hysterical patients and tried to treat them in various ways. There are causes and reasons for every act of human beings. There are so many thoughts going on in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind that you would not know until they tell you. Eventually, Freud came up with psychoanalytic theory and explained it thoroughly in Ã¢â¬Å"Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis.Ã¢â¬ FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has influenced many writerRead MoreInvisible Man11097 Words Ã |Ã 45 Pagesour planet is the mental institution of the universe. Despite the hyperbolic nature of Goethe s statement, it holds some truth. Because of this element of truth, society looks to psychoanalysis as an important tool for understanding human nature. Furthermore, psychoanalytic criticism of authors, characters, and readers has a place in literary criticism that is as important as the place of psychoanalysis in society. This is because of the mimetic nature of much of modern literature. In fact, the psychoanalystRead MoreEssay about Three Main Approaches in Counseling Psychology2501 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagestherapeutic relationship versus the importance of techniques in bringing about positive change in the client (Relation ship) between Clint the therapist .Therapy Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician In 1900 he was both the medical doctor(nurologist) and philosopher, Fraud who was founder of the study of psychoanalysis also known as the study of the unconscious mind A key assumption of the psychoanalytic theory is that much of human behaviour is determined by unconscious thoughtsRead MoreThe Application Of Psychological Perspectives Essay1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHumanist School, the Cognitive School, the Ecological School etc. However, I will discuss the similarities and differences between the Psychodynamic School, of Psychology and the Behaviourist School of Psychology. I will include such psychologists as Sigmund Freud and Eric Erikson in my discussion of the psychodynamic school and physiologist Ivan Pavlov and psychologist John B. Watson in my discussion of the behaviourists school. In studying these two differing schools, I found similarities including theRead MoreKaren Horney : Pioneer Of Feminine Psychology By Susan Tyler Hitchcock3647 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesKaren Horney was inspired mainly by the renowned Dr. Sigmund Freud,unlike many of the professors at BerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s medical school, . Many of the professors Horney had thought that Freud and his tactics were hocus pocus. Horney thought Freudian approach was intriguing. Although it was not well known about her fascination with the new approach, she pursued traditional studies by day and in the evening she would study Freud. She delved into psychoanalysis, which at the time was more of a revolutionary ideaRead MoreDr. Sigmund Freud s Theory Essay1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespsychology classes. Until my graduate level class I had no idea that there was more to Dr. Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s (1856-1939) thoughts and theories. In my mind Freud was the reason for victim blaming in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and help ed contribute to the systematic sexism that women face in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society; I even wrote about that in my response to some of his readings that he was the cause of all evil in the world essentially. While Freud is the cause for a lot of these ideas, and he was a sexist, he is not the perpetrator
Friday, December 20, 2019
In his first anthology of poems entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , Walt Whitman reveals some of his views on democracy through the use of symbolism and free verse poetry. His use of symbolism and free verse poetry creates indeterminacy, giving the reader hints rather than answers about the nature of the poem. In the sixth part of Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , a child asks the narrator of the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the grass?Ã¢â¬ (Whitman). Instead of simply giving an answer, the narrator cannot make up his mind, and stumbles on how to explain the grass to the child. Through the use of specific symbolisms, Whitman, as the narrator, explicates his views while remaining under the faÃ §ade of explaining grass to the child. The views Whitman conveys remain indeterminate andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By using metaphors to analogize grass with democracy, grass becomes a symbol for democracy allowing Whitman to convey his opinions on democracy by speaking bluntly about how he fee ls about the grass. Along with the use of metaphors, the form of the poem plays an important role in uncovering the views of Whitman. First and foremost, this poem was written in free verse which is a form of poetry that lacks structure. The free verse stucture of the poem is shown in the lack of form in the stanzas of the poem. Some stanzas are six lines long while others are only one, and the lines can be either concise or drawn out. The poem also lacks any apparent rhyming scheme or rhythm. Unlike Shakespearean poetry, where the foot of the poem stays the same, the lack of any apparent structure to the poem leaves the reader unable to predict what is coming next. In addition to this, at the time this poem was written, free verse was not common. In fact, Whitman may have been one of the first poets to use this form, showing that he may have been rebelling against the predominant structured form in poetry. The lack of any apparent structure guides the reader towards the conclusion that Whitman did not like structure in poetry, and can even beShow MoreRelatedWalt Whitman Song of Myself1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJanuary 20th, 2012 ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Only Natural: Racial and Gender Equality in Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ In the opening line of Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of Myself,Ã¢â¬ it becomes immediately evident that his song is not about himself, but about the entire human race: Ã¢â¬Å"I celebrate myself, and sing myself, and what I assume you shall assume, / for every atom belonging to me as good belongs to youÃ¢â¬ . His poem extols the mundane aspects of everyday life that a traditional poet of his day would not have consideredRead MoreSong Of Myself By Walt Whitman1795 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageschemical also released during sex and eating. In his gutsy poem to America, Song of Myself, Walt Whitman uses repetition to make music that will bring pleasure to his readers and also shape how they perceive the world. Whitman begins his poem by boldly stating that he celebrates himself. Like the chorus to a song he repeats the word Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ throughout the entirety of the poem. The meaning of the word transitions from Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ being Whitman himself, to the people reading his book , and then ending with the readerRead MoreSong of Myself by Walt Whitman2251 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"I celebrate myself, and sing myself / and what I shall assume you shall assumeÃ¢â¬ (Whitman 1-2). These lines not only open up the beginning of one the best poems of the American Romantic period, but they also represent a prominent theme of one of this periodÃ¢â¬â¢s best poet, Walt Whitman. In Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Song of Myself, Whitman deals with his time periodÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent theme of democracy. Whitman tells readers that they must not only observe the democratic life but they must become one with it. AsRead MoreThe Song Of Myself By Walt Whitman And Howl1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBoth Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ by Walt Whitman and Ã¢â¬Å"HowlÃ¢â¬ by Allen Ginsberg are important pieces of American poetry. Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ was written in the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s and Ã¢â¬Å"HowlÃ¢â¬ was written about a century later. Both poets were part of groups th at wanted to change America Ã¢â¬â the Transcendentalists and the Beats. Transcendentalists believed in the goodness of people and nature. They believe that people are at their best when they are truly independent. The Beats rejected standard values and materialism. They experimentedRead MoreAnalysis Of Song Of Myself By Walt Whitman1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesself-wisdom, discovery and betterment Ã¢â¬â is the ground-breaking poet, Walt Whitman. In his poetry, Whitman explores the surreal and cosmic, relating the supernatural to the mundane .With an emphasis on oneness with nature, WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s celebratory attitude of the human soul in all of its complexity, beauty, and contradictions is most noted in his extensive poem titled Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , and is developed further in his poem Ã¢â¬Å"KosmosÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Whitman pioneers the future of modern poetry while incorporating hisRead MoreSong of Myself by Walt Whitman903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesultimate threat to the United States at the time, Whitman wished to mend Americas social and political demands through his poetry. Throughout WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s works, the reader can evidently observe the widths and basis of his social and political philosophy and the layers of various circumstances that exist within his American culture Ã¢â¬â which is an essential part of his democratic vision. Many of Whitmans poems, including major works such as Song of Myself, can be studied with this tidbit, but yet theseRead MoreWalt Whitman s Song Of Myself1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ Walt Whitman was an American poet born in May 31, 1819 in New York, and he died in March 26, 1892 in New Jersey. He grew up going to school in separate facilities from people of color, so he was growing up along with the nation. He was self-taught by exploring things for himself, for example, going to the museums when he could. Whitman as a young boy alternated from being in the city to being in the countryside with his grandparents. He was exposed to be beingRead MoreWalt Whitman - Song of Myself822 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWalt Whitman has neither related his biography nor glorified himself in the poem as the title suggests. Infact, the apparent indication of the title is here of no importance. The poem is the song of celebration of every object of nature in general where a question put to the poet by a little child triggers off a philosophical trend of thought relating to death and the meaning of death. In the poem, he has celebrated his own idea (that nothing collapses due to death but instead life moves on) andRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Whitman s Song Of Myself1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa Poem Using the Same Ideas from Another Person The idea that the artist is a single individual coming to stand and speak for the masses is one of EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s main transcendentalist ideas. Walt Whitman met EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal artist description as he spoke as one man for the multitude in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , which openly demonstrates WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in the imperative indivisibility of self-reliance. He shares many of the same ideas as Emerson, such as the importance of the self and views on religionRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Whitman s Song Of Myself Essay2414 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages The prevalence of Hegelianism in Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ is indisputable, yet a consensus on the meaning remains elusive, and therefore, insidious to the democratic progress Whitman attempts. Whitman uses Hegel to support his ideas about the dialectical theory of consciousness, the spiritualization and importance of art, and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s manifest destiny. I later elucidate on these catego ries and break them down into more precise ideas. I use a variety of scholars for evidence of structural
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Tyson Foods Synopis and Mission Statement BY ss834510 Tyson Foods, Inc. Synopsis Statistics show that the world population is expected to reach 9. 2 billion by 2050. With a drastic increase in inhabitants on Earth, demand for food will also significantly increase. Thus, agriculture is on the forefront to fulfill this need. Tyson Foods is already on the Fortune 500 as the second largest food manufacturing corporation and is also on the SP 500. This company produces and packages a large selection of beef, poultry, and pork products that provide convenience to its consumers. These products are then sold to food retailers throughout the United States and in over 90 countries around the world. While producing and packaging food ties into making a profit, Tyson Foods takes large strides to insure its consumers of its quality food products. The companys Food Wise program educates its consumers on how to prepare food properly, establishes labeling and tracking systems, and helps to sponsor the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation and the Food Marketing Institute Foundation. We will write a custom essay sample on Tyson Foods Synopis and Mission Statement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Furthermore, Tyson extends itself through umanitarian efforts to help with hunger and disaster relief. Since 2000, the company has donated over 50 million pounds of its products to help those in need. Moreover, Tyson promotes environmental stewardship by implementing an environmental management system to all of its domestic processing plants, encouraging natural farming techniques, presenting awards to the beef, pork, and poultry producers who have exhibited outstanding environmental conservation, and acting on water and greenhouse gas concerns. History of the Company Tyson Foods was founded in 1935 and is headquartered in Springdale, Arkansas. In the early 1930s John Tyson hauled his first load of chickens to Chicago and sold them for a profit of $235. Tyson foods was already starting to vertically integrate in the late 1930s when John Tyson bought a hatchery and built a feed mill. In 1947, Tyson became a corporate company, which was named Tyson Feed and Hatchery. Tyson now sold baby chicks and feed and transported poultry to markets. Don Tyson left college and began running the company as general manager in 1952. During the 50s, disease and changing markets left the industry unpredictable. Tyson overcame he market, and annual sales reached $1 million with the hatchery producing 12,000 chicks per week. Tyson built his first processing plant in Springdale for $90,000 in 1957. In 1961, cost exceeded broiler prices for eight and a half months, so they entered the commercial egg business. Tyson Feed and Hatchery went public selling 100,000 shares of stock for $10. 50 per share and changing their name to Tyson Foods in 1963. Tyson Foods purchased Garrett Poultry Company in Rogers, Arkansas, and decided to use an expand or expire strategy. In 1966, Don became President of the company. The following year John and his wife were killed in a car accident in Springdale. Tyson Foods made the Fortune 1000 with $72 million in sales and and was the nations largest pork producer by 1979. Tyson Foods, Inc. made several acquisitions to grow the company; by 1982 it made the Fortune 500 list. Tyson purchased Holly Farms in 1989, doubling in size with $2. 5 billion in sales and now processing beef and pork. Tyson acquired two seafood companies in 1992 and three years later bought both of Cargills broiler operations and McCarty Farms, Inc. Tyson acquired several companies throughout the rest of the 90s. Tyson Foods Inc. turned 65 years old and made John Tyson CEO of the company in 2000. One year later Tyson Foods became the largest processor of beef, pork and chicken at the time because of the acquisition of IBP. Mission and Vision Statement Tysons mission states, Our mission is to produce and market trusted quality food products that fit todays changing lifestyles and to attract, reward, and retain the best people in the food industry. This statement tells the investors and consumers that Tyson is aiming to provide consumers with what they need and want while using high standards to insure safe products. The company also strives to employee only the best people who will be dependable, trustworthy, knowledgeable, and reliable enough to make the best decisions for the business. Our vision is to be the worlds first choice for protein solutions while maximizing shareholder value, living our Core Values and fostering a fun place to work. Tysons vision clearly states that they want to be the number one food processing company in the world. The company hopes to expand their services and market even further; thus, profit would also be expected to increase which would in turn increase hareholder wealth. The Core Values emphasizes the importance of diverse, honorable people; environmental stewardship; and consistent profits for shareholders that are achieved with integrity, dependability, and respect to one another. Tyson Foods focuses on four major strategies in order to achieve their goals. First, new industry demanded food products must be created. This will give Tyson a strong competitive advantage in the food processing industry. Second, each of the three protein areas is expected to be expanded and the margins closely upervised for the assurance of continued profits and success.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Health Sciences for Radiolabeld DNA. Answer: Introduction Two research groups independently developed In situ hybridization (ISH). The 28S RNA or Radiolabeld DNA was hybridized to cytological preparations from the oocytes of Xenopus and was detected through microautoradiography. The examination of nucleic acid sequences inside the cells has been allowed by this technique and it had not altered the morphology or integrity of the cell and its different components. Since then, the modification of ISH has been done for studying the evolution of chromosomes, chromosomal analysis of leukaemias and tumors together with the cytogenetic studies of a large number of species. Drs. Nielsen, Egoholm, Buchardt and Berg carried out the discovery of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) for the first time in the year 1991. PNA consists of a polyamide backbone i.e. the nucleobases that are modified and have extraordinary physical, biological and chemical properties like higher binding affinity, exceptional biological stability, blocking enzyme function, better specifi city, a probe for hybridization, cellular uptake, molecular diagnostics, labelling of plasmids with diverse kinds of fluorescent molecules and several other applications in the field of biomedical sciences. The potential applications of PNA include supramolecular nanostructure, antisense technology, nanoelectrical system, antisense technology and DNA computing. It also has nanomedical applications together with drug delivery and diagnostics for treating the microbial infections as well as diseases. In addition, the knowledge and understanding regarding the biological processes like protein synthesis and gene expression not only helps in the development of the procedures related to medical diagnostics, but are also useful in the medical treatment through the introduction of gene and antisense therapy (1). PNA has properties such as high sensitivity, high binding affinity and high specificities that have been explored in the PNA array that leads to the formation of a duplex of PNA/DNA because of the electrically neutral property of the oligomers of PNA. These strong duplexes of PNA/DNA bring about higher melting temperature (2). PNA probes possess high biological stability and are resistant to degradation by enzymes due to the presence of a backbone of N(2aminoethyl)glycine, which is not recognized by the proteases and nucleases. Since the enzymes cannot degrade the probes of PNA, the shelf life of of these probes is significantly long over years even at room temperature (3). Peptide Nucleic Acids have different applications based on its distinctive biophysical properties and have drawn the attention of molecular biologists, biochemists, chemists, material engineers, biotechnologists and material engineers for the development of genetic diagnostics, gene therapeutic drugs, identification of viral or bacterial contaminants in biological samples, as probes for FISH, microarray technology and DNA biosensors (4). The exceptional physicochemical properties of of PNA molecules, facilitates the development of assays that are uncomplicated and robust in several areas of biology together with molecular genetics, virology, microbiology, cytogenetics, and parasitology because of the chemical modifications that are new to the original backbone of PNA. This kind of modification may add to enhance PNAs potentialities for new applications in diagnostics and research like analysis of chromosome, analysis of point mutation, mycology, bacteriology, human pathology, and potential use in the form of therapeutic agents (5). The probes of PNA also provide an exceptional opportunity for specifically identifying microorganisms in the specimens of pathology, together with paraffin embedded and formalin fixed material. This particular technology associates pathology and clinical microbiology, provides a new format for testing, and opens the door to additional applications of test in clinical laboratory. The probe of PNA combines the simplicity with specificity and sensitivity of molecular technologies. This type of combination is compatible for replacing the current technologies, which provide fast and specific diagnosis and tests of microbiology that result in time of an appropriate therapy of a patient (6). The potential applications of PNA comprise supramolecular nanostructure, antisense technology, nanoelectrical system, antisense technology and DNA computing. It also has nanomedical applications together with delivery of drugs and diagnostics for treating the microbial infections as well as diseases. Additionally, the knowledge and understanding concerning the biological processes such as protein synthesis and gene expression not only assists in the development of the methods associated with medical diagnostics, but are also helpful in the medical treatment by the introduction of gene and antisense therapy. PNA has properties such as high sensitivity, high binding affinity and high specificities that have been explored in the PNA array that leads to the formation of a duplex of PNA/DNA because of the electrically neutral property of the oligomers of PNA. These strong duplexes of PNA/DNA bring about higher melting temperature. PNA probes possess high biological stability and are resis tant to degradation by enzymes due to the presence of a backbone of N(2aminoethyl)glycine, which is not recognized by the proteases and nucleases. Since the enzymes cannot degrade the probes of PNA, the shelf life of of these probes is considerably long over years. Robustness of PNA and its affecting factors The PNA probes are provided with the unique characteristics of hybridization like stronger and rapid binding to the complementary targets by the synthetic backbone. These properties of the molecules of PNA are elucidated by the lack of electrostatic repulsion characteristically encountered when the hybridization of negatively charged complementary oligomers of DNA occurs. Due to the presence of a non-charged backbone, the probes of DNA hybridize independent of the salt concentration. In addition, the physico-chemical behaviour of the probes of PNA comparative to DNA gets impacted due to the negative charges. They have facilitated the development of exceptional hybridization of PNA and PNA/target separation methods. All these methods encompass pre-gel hybridization as well as binding of hybrids of probe/target to the surfaces and polymers that are positively charged (7). The unnatural backbone of PNA also signifies that the degradation of PNA do not occur by the ubiquitous enzymes like proteases and nucleases. The elevated biostability is not only essential for their utilization as therapeutic antisense agents, but is also probable to enhance the stability of probes of PNA in the diagnostic applications and offer enhanced shelf-life of the product together with a better range of assay formats. Due the backbone, the recognition of PNA do not take place by polymerases and hence cannot be used directed or copied as a primer and the monomers of PNA cannot be incorporated enzymatically into amplicons. Characteristics make the self-reporting probe of PNA more robust molecules for detection involving the real-time PCR methods as compared to their counterparts that are derived from DNA, for example the hybridization probes for the light cycler that are degraded throughout PCR by means of Taq DNAs endonuclease activity (8). In reality, the variables like kind of fixative utilized (alcohol-based or aldehyde fixation) temperature, hybridization time, probe concentration, pH, formamide and dextran sulphate, among others, are identified to affect the efficiency of hybridization (9). The time and temperature of hybridization are important variables for the outcome of the process of hybridization and for lowering the temperature at which hybridization will be performed; formamide is most commonly used (10). The temperature of hybridization is associated with the affinity of the probe to the target and its estimation can be done by Gibbs free energy change, which is related to the reaction of hybridization. The time of hybridization has been linked with the process kinetics that encompasses probe penetration through the envelope of the cell, the probe binding with the complementary sequence together with the unfolding of secondary as well as tertiary structures of rRNA and probes eventual folded portions (11). For reducing the thermal stability of the double-stranded polynucleotides, Formamide (FA), which is a denaturing agent, is used. It enhances the accessibility of the target of rRNA and competes for hydrogen bonding that facilitates the hybridization to be performed at the lower temperatures. Hence, it has been presumed that the concentration of of FA required, together with the time and temperature of hybridization. It regulates the stringency of the process and is dependent only on the sequence of the target and the structure of the probe. Additionally, the physico-chemical behaviour of the probes of PNA comparative to DNA gets impacted due to the negative charges (12). For lowering the annealing temperature and boiling point of the strands of the nucleic acids in In situ hybridization (ISH), formamide is an ideal solvent. It has an advantage for preserving the morphology because of a lower temperature for incubation. Nonetheless, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), aligned with the unique targets of DNA in tissue sections, for obtaining the adequate signal testing, an overnight hybridization is needed. Over the past 30 years, for in situ hybridization, the solvent for choice is formamide. It lowers the melting point through the destabilization of the double-stranded structure of the nucleic acid helix. Its toxicity is distinguished but has been overshadowed by its advantageous effects. When the hybridizing DNA probes to low copy number or single locus targets on the sections of Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, an incubation of 16 hours or more is needed and is the major time consuming step in the procedure of in situ hybridizatio n. If the hybridization of the entire genome is done, for instance, with comparative genomic hybridization, a hybridization time 49 to 94 hours is often utilized. A major disadvantage of Fish utilizing the probes of oliginucleotides is the inconsistent and at times inadequate penetration of probes in the bacteria depending on the characteristics of their cell wall. In acid-fast bacilli and Gram-positive species, this is observed mainly as a problem. PNAs may be helpful to overcoming this problem. Because of the presence of their neutral backbone, the diffusion of PNAs occurs through the hydrophobic cell walls and allows the detection of mycobacterium through FISH and do not involve any pre-treatment. Utilising the specific fluorescently labelled PNAs, the differentiation between non-tuberculous and tuberculous mycobacteria was possible in the smears of mycobacterial cultures and directly in the samples of smear-positive sputum within few hours. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), aligned with the distinctive targets of DNA in tissue sections, for obtaining the sufficient signal testing, an overnight hybridization is required . This method constitutes an enhancement in the regular diagnosis of tuberculosis and may assist in establishing FISH as a fast, cost-effective and valuable method in the field of clinical microbiology. An organism concentration of no less than 105CFU/ml is required by PNA-FISH for the rocess of detection. This is a limitation of PNA-FISH and this particular requirement may prove to be difficult for detecting the fastidious or slow-growing organisms. Generally, the probes of DNA shorter in comparison to the conventional nucleotides are needed for the specific binding. Therefore, they appear to be an interesting substitute to the conventional oligonucleotide probes. In comparison to aegPNA and DNA, it presented a better sequence specificity and a strong binding affinity towards DNA. Method available for detecting MRNA in the tissue section An essential tool for studying the spatial organization of the genome with a high accuracy is Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The labelled probes that target the entire chromosome or regions of chromosomes allow the direct visualization in the interphase as well as the metaphase (6). The generation of such painted probes can be done from the DNA isolated by the microdissection of the metaphase chromosome, followed by the amplification and labelling with the nucleotides that are modified by degenerate oligonucleotide primer- PCR(DOP-PCR). This method comprises the step of universal amplification that is mainly effective at amplifying the single copies of chromosome to produce paints or perform additional cytogenetic applications in which there is an availability of small quantity of DNA, for instance small pieces of microdissected tissue or single cells (7). On the other hand, Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), is an appropriate substitute to FISH. It leads to the pro duction of a permanent chromosome by utilising peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase- labelled reporter antibodies, which interacts with the probes of the hybridized DNA that are subsequently detected by means of an enzymatic reaction (8). CISH is advantageous over FISH as it can be viewed through a bright-field microscope. For the rapid diagnosis of bacterial pathogens in the microbiology laboratory, Real-time (RT) PCR testing can be reliable as it is an emerging competing technology. It is probable to challenge directly PNA FISH (13). Unlike PNA FISH that assists in the detection of RNA in the living organisms and it can also detect the infections that are ongoing in nature, RT-PCR cannot distinguish between the past and current infection, and therefore it is very sensitive for the diagnosis, but may possibly lack clinical specificity (14). Its development was carried out for rapidly enhancing the process of DNA amplification and improvement of specificity and sensitivity over the traditional methods. The testing can be done on all the types of specimen, along with paraffin specimens, and combines DNA technology with the fluorescent probes of the product, which is amplified in the similar reaction vessel. Since the reaction takes place within a closed vessel, the risk of contamination of the environme nt is reduced and needs less time and produce rapid results within an hour in comparison to the traditional methods of PCR testing (15). A better healthcare can be achieved by rapid and accurate diagnosis and PNA probe is more efficient than the traditional methods in this context. In the present scenario, the rate at which the human pathogens are getting resistant is alarming and it is leading towards an urgent need for improving the diagnostic technologies that are intended for the rapid detection along with point-of-care testing for supporting the quick decision making concerning the management of patient and antibiotic therapy. These data reveal the advantage of rapid that can reduce the treatment of the cultures that are contaminated, reduce expenses and stay in the hospital and it may decrease antimicrobial resistance. A disparity among the empirical therapeutic and ensuing susceptibility result from a specific organism is one of the important factor that leads to the delaying of an effectual therapy (16). It has been revealed that early and rapid administration of antimicrobial therapy to the patients suffering from the infection of the bloodstream results in the reduction of mortality. In addition, the need for a rapid diagnosis has usually been overlooked due the practices of empiric and prophylactic treatment, which utilizes broad-spectrum antibiotics. At present, though, it is well established that more suitable utilization of antibiotics is needed for limiting the emergence of the pathogens that are resistant to multiple drugs. Altering the empiric nature of antibiotics, therapy in which the patients are covered with antibiotics of a broad spectrum needs new, fast and perfect tools of diagnosis for providing the physician with timely and reliable information for the therapy and management of patients (17). Clinical microbiology laboratory service is intended for detecting and identifying the specific microorganisms in the clinical specimens for diagnosing the infectious diseases. Nonetheless, the significance of precision and the ease of the slow, inexpensive methods frequently delay the reporting time for a number of days or weeks (18). The exceptional performance distinctiveness of PNA FISH are attributed to the high specificity of the probes of PNA integrated with the utilization of rRNA as a target and they evidently demonstrate how molecular diagnosis can offer accurate results within a particular frame of time and is not likely to use the traditional phenotype-based methods of identification. In addition, PNA FISH is better than the traditional methods for mixed cultures like Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia contaminated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CNS) and for almost the species that are indistinguishable, for example C.dubliniensis and C. Albicans, in which the traditional methods failed to, provide an accurate diagnosis (6). Today, diagnostic testing is developing to become a significant constituent of the modern medicine, which is based on information and focuses on to provide rapid as well as accurate results potentially resulting in the better treatment of patients, controlling infection, and management of healthcare. PNA FISH is an illustration of diagnosis tests in this new generation and is intended to provide a real-time impact on the therapy of the patients (18). Through the introduction of PNA FISH for the rapid diagnosis of the infections in the bloodstream, novel tools has been provided to the clinical microbiology laboratory for reporting the diagnostic results in time to select the correct therapy. This evidently exemplifies how the first therapy-directing diagnosis will target the diagnostic needs that are not met and are related to the current practices of treatment with the antibiotics that are commonly used (6) In the end, it can be concluded that precise diagnostic tests have a key role in the management of patient and the control of most irresistible illnesses. Unfortunately, in numerous developing countries, clinical care is frequently compromised by the absence of regulatory controls on the quality of these tests. The data accessible on the execution of a diagnostic test can be one-sided or defective as a result of failings in the configuration of the studies which evaluated the performance attributes of the test. Subsequently, diagnostic tests are sold and utilized in much of the developing world without confirmation of adequacy. Misdiagnosis leading to failure in treating a severe disease or squandering costly treatment on individuals who are not infected remains a serious problem of health and wellbeing. The improvement of a diagnostic test more often than not takes after a way from recognizable proof of the diagnostic target and advancement of test reagents to the improvement of a t est model. The exceptional physicochemical properties of of PNA molecules, facilitates the development of assays that are uncomplicated and robust in several areas of biology together with molecular genetics, virology, microbiology, cytogenetics, and parasitology because of the chemical modifications that are new to the original backbone of PNA. Currently, the rate at which the pathogens of humans are getting resistant is frightening and it is leading towards an urgent need for enhancing the diagnostic technologies that aimed to the rapid detection along with point-of-care testing for supporting the quick decision making concerning the patient management and antibiotic therapy. It shows the decrease in the treatment of the cultures that are contaminated, lessen expenses and stay in the hospital and it may reduce antimicrobial resistance. A difference among the empirical therapeutic and subsequent susceptibility result from a specific organism is one of the significant factor that le ads to the delaying of an efficient therapy.