Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Strong and weak states Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Strong and weak states - Essay Example Current paper focuses on the presentation and the explanation of the differences between strong and weak states – as these differences are highlighted in the relevant literature. Emphasis is given on both the characteristics of strong and weak states and the reasons for the existing differences between the above types of states. The understanding of the criteria and the reasons for the categorization of states to strong and weak could help to explain the format of relationships among states in the context of international community. More specifically, strong states are most likely to show their power in influencing key international policies by intervening in the political, social and economic decisions of the weak states (Nelson et al. 2002). Moreover, the presentation of the causes for the differences between strong and weak states would help to identify the strategies that would help inequality in the global politics to be effectively controlled. 2. Strong and weak states à ¢â‚¬â€œ characteristics and differences In the context of the international community, two different major types of states can be identified: a) the states which are strongly centralized and where the social needs are effectively addressed using appropriate economic (for instance, the industrialization) and political schemes; these states can be characterized as strong (Migdal 2001), b) on the other hand, there are those states where the government is not able to monitor the social and the economic changes developed across the national territory; these are the weak states where changes in society and economy are inevitable under the pressure of ‘uncontrollable forces coming from large powers and the world economy’ (Migdal 2001, p.58). In practice, a series of different criteria can be used in order to decide whether a particular state should be characterized as a strong or weak. For instance, in the study of Kopstein et al (2005) it is noted that the autonomy of a state in developing its own decisions on issues that are key for its existence and development should be considered as the key criterion for characterizing the specific state as strong. In other words, strong states are characterized by the ability of their leaders to make clear their preferences on the state’s priorities and initiatives – both in the short and the long term (Kopstein et al 2005). Moreover, capacity should be regarded as another key criterion for characterizing a state as strong; capacity in this case, as the term is used in the study of Kopstein et al (2005), is related to the existence of adequate resources for the development of the various plans of the state. Reference is made not just to financial resources, i.e. the funds available for the realization of the governmental plans, but also to the social resources, i.e. the people who are willing and capable of supporting the relevant initiatives (Kopstein et al. 2005). As for the weak states, it can be c oncluded – referring to the issues highlighted in the study of Kopstein et al. (2005) – that these states are expected to have limited autonomy and capacity, as these two terms were explained above. However, at this point, the following issue should be highlighted: the level of autonomy and capacity of a state cannot be always clearly identified. Even if many indications exist that show a high

Monday, October 28, 2019

Islam spread rapidly Essay Example for Free

Islam spread rapidly Essay I went through various different websites on the internet trying to find out why Islam was spread so rapidly, I found so many diverse answers, but the most answer that I kept on finding was The Sword. The sword is when Muslims give non-Muslims two options, either they convert to Islam or they have to face death. Some believed that Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him, was a violent man, who forced non Muslims into Islam. They also believe that Early Islam was less tolerant to other religions, other than that they believe that Arabs and Muslims in General hated Christians and Jews, and wanted them to Vanish from earth. I disagree with what Ive read. Prophet Muhammad was known for his kindness and his respect for other religion, adding to that, he tried to follow the steps of the prophets that came before him, and he admired them. His main idea was to spread harmony between all religions and to create peace. Muslims have not forced others into Islam and didnt kill non Muslims because they wouldnt convert. Prophet Muhammad had announced to non Muslims that they only have to pay taxes if they didnt want to convert, other than that they were treated respectfully by Muslims and others. Also, Im not the only one who is disagreeing with such things. The webpage that I attached in the end of this paper also tries to show that Islam being spread by the sword is only a Myth. In the Western Civilization volume one book, starting from page 252 it speaks about how Islam was spread. It states that Islam was spread because of its harmony and tolerance also because of the Prophet Muhammad great personality, and not to forget about the holy wars and Abu Baker. Those had a huge impact on non Muslims who converted to Islam. The message of Islam in early days was rapidly spread through the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, West Africa, East Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, Western China, and the Malay Archipelago. They all converted to Islam not because they were forced to, but because they have learned and saw how real Muslims acted and were. Prophet Mohammed has introduced Islam in a very lovable way, He faced difficulties, such as hater from Qurish, people threw rocks at him, and he was cursed and hit many, many times, however, he didnt stop. He continued spreading the Islam. A lot of people followed him and supported him, until the day of his death. After the prophet, peace upon him, passed away Abu Baker was firmed in spreading Islam around the world. Abu baker was declared as the caliph, and the second-in-command of Mohammed. He created a powerful military that restrained all the Arab trips that didnt accept successors establishment. Other than that, his force of military started to slowly move further than the borders of Arabia. Not to forget to mention that Arabs were not interested in conquering other cities because they wanted to spread Islam. Arabians actually hoped that the cities they conquered wouldnt convert to Islam, so Arabians could preserve their own individuality as a society of leaders and tax gatherers. Anyhow, Arabia was mostly interested in conquering other cites for the wealth and the power, and as I mentioned earlier, not to spread Islam. There were a lot of weak cities beside them that motivated the Arabs to start conquering, also, the idea of new riches played a huge part. There are a lot of reasons why Islam spread so fast, other than the ones that are already mentioned in this text or the webpage that is attached to this paper. People need to know the truth about Islam, and nee to stop judging it based on Myths and lies.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Much Ado About Nothing - A Feminist Perspective Essay -- Feminism Fem

A Feminist Perspective of Much Ado About Nothing  Ã‚      Much Ado About Nothing, though a critically acclaimed play, seems to be truly a fuss of trivial details and sexist thinking. The title fits the play itself, in the sense that it is a case of a great amount of nothing, which perhaps can be assumed to be a mistake on William Shakespeare's part. The characters in the comedy are not realistic, and those that could have been were transformed throughout the course of events depicted. The most trouble with the play, however, seems to come from the representation of the female characters, particularly in comparison with the males. It seems almost that the female characters are written off, rather than merely written out. The male characters of the play are given higher roles, and their characters are followed more faithfully, further proving its chauvinistic composition. The title of the play even suggests a sexist nature in its possible Elizabethan reference to the female genitalia. The play seems to reflect the common thought of its era concerning the social stat...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Example of Related Literature and Studies

The previous chapter is all about the framework of the study. How the study was made possible and up to where the study bounds to are the points of the first chapter. This chapter presents survey of related literature and writing of recognized experts both of which have significant bearing or relation to the problem under investigation. The review focuses on the different materials that are needed on the solution of the study, what are the following points why these materials are necessary for the study.The chapter begins with the introduction of the different materials primarily needed to make the study successful, followed by the history or methodology used by people from ages in making facial masks, and ended by different studies related or to be referred at by the researcher. Materials for the Research The main material of the study is Banana (Musa acuminata). It is an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plant in the genus Musa.The fruit is variab le in size, colour, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft fleshy rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple or brown when ripe. Banana is one of the most popular fruit eaten by the whole world. Not because of its cost and agricultural plantation but because of its benefits. Vitamin A present in banana is the component of it that acts as a natural moisturizer. According to an article â€Å"19 Amazing Benefits and Uses of Banana for Skin and Hair† (Aparajita, Stylecraze. com, 2010), Banana fruit has nutrients that are essential for the skin.They contain significant amounts of vitamin C and B6 which plays vital role in maintaining the integrity and elasticity of the skin. In addition, the large amount of antioxidants and manganese present in banana protect the body from damage caused by oxygen free radicals which lead to premature aging of the skin. So a major benefit from banana is younger looking skin. Banana has about 75 per cent water by weight in it. Thus banana helps hydrate your skin and prevents it from drying and peeling. Aparajita’s article also discusses about the anti-aging power of banana’s moisture.â€Å"Nutrients in banana help in fighting wrinkles and keep the skin youthful. For an anti-aging facial mask loaded with vitamins A and E, mash together an avocado and a banana. Leave on skin for 25 minutes and rinse. Skin will be soft and youthful. The vitamins E in avocados combined with the nutrients in bananas fight free radicals and repair damage. † However, banana’s moisturizing effect is not enough for the study to last and be more effective. Acne is the problem of the study, a natural cure is needed. Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.The variety produced by honey bees is the most commonly referred to as it is the type of honey collected by most beekeepers and consumed by humans. (Wikipedia. com) â€Å"Honey can do wonders for your skin, no wonder you will find so many skin-care products in the market containing honey. Honey acts as an anti-aging agent, and moisturizer. Additionally, it contains anti-microbial properties and natural antioxidants which help to protect the skin from sun rays and facilitates the skin’s ability to rejuvenate and refresh exhausted looking skin, thus leaving it soft and silky.Honey also has the ability to absorb and retain moisture and this helps in keeping the skin well hydrated, fresh and supple. It is known that ancient women used honey and milk to keep the skin youthful, radiant, and smooth. †(stylecraze. com, 2011) Honey is a natural exfoliator that can clear blackheads with regular use. Acne can be also treated by honey with minimal and diluted solution. â€Å"Acne is a very embarrassing. Those who are bestowed with breakout of acne will definitely concur with me. Well there is hope, as honey can come to your rescue in curbing this problem.Honey plays an imperat ive role in treatment of acne. Acne is caused by the build up of oil and dirt and since honey absorbs impurities from the pores on the skin, it is an ideal cleansing agent. Honey also is a natural antiseptic and soothes and heals your skin. Many women use honey to treat pimples. † (stylecraze. com, 2011) Most of facial masks need milk or cream for emulsifying. But milk does not only act as emulsifier, milk has nutrients that contribute to youthful skin and moisturized face. Milk’s thickness and viscosity is not enough to make a viscous fluid or mask, instead we should make use of cream.Cream is a dairy product that is produced of the high-butterfat layer skimmed from top of milk before homogenization. Double cream is the choice, which contains 48% of minimum milk fat that whips easily and thickest for pudding and desserts. (Wikipedia. com, 2008) According to the National Dairy Council (as of 2010), milk is filled with nine essential nutrients that benefit our health:Cal cium: Builds healthy bones and teeth; maintains bone mass.Protein: Serves as a source of energy; builds/repairs muscle tissue.Potassium: Helps maintain a healthy blood pressure.Phosphorus: Helps strengthen bones and generate energy.Vitamin D: Helps maintain bones.Vitamin B12: Maintains healthy red blood cells and nerve tissue.Vitamin A: Maintains the immune system; helps maintain normal vision and skin.Riboflavin (B2): Converts food into energy.Niacin: Metabolizes sugars and fatty acids According to Dr. Brian Roy, milk does not only help in fitness and bone maintenance, but also in skin health and anti-aging agent.Facial mask There are different kinds of masks (e.  g. cactus, cucumber, etc.) for different purposes: deep-cleansing, by penetrating the pores; healing acne scars or hyper-pigmentation; brightening, for a gradual illumination of the skin tone. Some masks are designed to dry or solidify on the face, almost like plaster; others just remain wet. The perceived effects of a facial mask treatment include revitalizing, healing, or refreshing; and, may yield temporary or long-term benefits (depending on environmental, dietary, and other skincare factors).Masks are removed by either rinsing the face with water, wiping off with a damp cloth, or peeling off of the face by hand. Duration for wearing a mask varies with the type of mask, and manufacturer's usage instructions. The time can range from a few minutes to overnight. Those with sensitive skin are advised to first test out the mask on a small portion of the skin, in order to check for any irritations. Some facial masks are not suited to frequent use. A glycolic mask can only be used once a month without the risk of burning the skin.Masks can be found anywhere from drugstores to department stores, and can vary in consistency and form. Setting masks include: clay, which is a thicker consistency, and will draw out impurities (and sometimes, natural oils, too) from the pores; a cream, which stays damp to h ydrate the skin; sheet-style, in which a paper mask is dampened with liquid to tone and moisturize the skin; and lastly, a hybrid/clay and cream form that includes small beads for removing dead surface skin cells. Non-setting facial masks include warm oil and paraffin wax masks.These different forms are made to suit different skin types (e. g. , oily or dry), and different skincare goals or needs (e. g. , moisturizing, cleansing, exfoliating). Clay and mud masks suit oily and some â€Å"combination† skin types, while cream-based masks tend to suit dry and sensitive skin types. Homemade skin treatments aren't a new idea. Thousands of years before commercial products were available, ancient Egyptians made powders, ointments and lotions by combining plant extracts with natural oils (Slapak, 2004).In China, a combination of ground orange seeds and honey was used to help keep skin clear (National Honey Board). And in the 2nd century, ancient Romans combined animal fats with starch es to make facial creams (Fountain). Egyptians used cosmetics regardless of sex and social status for both aesthetic and therapeutic reasons. Oils and unguents were rubbed into the skin to protect it from the hot air. Most frequently used were white make-up, black make-up made with carbon, lead sulphide (galena) or manganese oxide (pyrolusite) and green make-up from malachite and other copper based minerals.Red ochre was ground and mixed with water, and applied to the lips and cheeks, painted on with a brush. Henna was used to dye the fingernails yellow and orange. Kohl was applied to the eyes with a small stick. Both upper and lower eyelids were painted and a line was added extending from the corner of the eye to the sides of the face, the eye brows were painted black. It was believed that the makeup had magical and even healing powers. Most people will have applied the make-up themselves, but for those who could afford it, there was the professional cosmetician, the, the â €˜face painter' so to speak.Even after death one had to take care of one's looks. When presenting oneself before the gods during the Judgment of the Dead one had best observe certain rules of dress and make-up in order to make the right impression: â€Å"A man says this speech when he is pure, clean, dressed in fresh clothes, shod in white sandals, painted with eye-paint, anointed with the finest oil of myrrh. † (Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead) Oil is the primary ingredient of every Egyptian cosmetic product.Every King in the Dynasty of Egypt orders the finest oil from their capitol and from their workers. The King's order addressed to the High Priest of Amen, king of gods, Ramses-nakht. The following: This royal order was brought to you with the words that I have sent (it) to you by the supervisor of the treasury of Pharaoh, l. p. h. , and the King's butler Amenhotep, reading: Have excellent galena for the make-up of the Pharaoh, l. p. h. , taken where one (i. e. he) is, and you sent 15 deben of galena through him.When it had been handed to the physicians in the place of physicians of Pharaoh in the residence in order to prepare it, it was found to be very bad galena and no make-up usable for Pharaoh, l. p. h. , was among it. Only a single deben of galena was found among it†¦. (Cairo ESP, Letter, New Kingdom) Now, modern cosmetic and facial care products are artificially prepared or made from factories. But every product may irritate your face so naturally prepared cosmetic care products are more needed and more demanding. Related StudiesAccording to a study of an unknown researcher from India, banana juice is nutritious but not necessary on facial treatment because it needs fermentation. Anonymous wrote: Banana is a tropical fruit, which is grown abundantly in India. It is mainly composed of soluble sugars, starch and other polysaccharides. The juice was extracted from the normal ripe fruits with the help of pectinase enzyme. Optimization of pectinase treatment was done by RSM method. Wine was prepared by using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3283 & NCIM 3046.The size of inoculum, effective pH, temperature, level of SO2 , level of DAP for both strains was optimized. It was found that NCIM 3046 gave better results compared to the other strain. Soluble solids (SS), pH and specific gravity decreased while titratable acidity (TA) increased with increasing length of fermentation of the juice. Sensory evaluation results showed that banana wine was acceptable in terms of flavor, taste, clarity and overall characteristics. The banana wine was generally accepted & could be popularized.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism

Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism â€Å"The types of questions investigated in mass media research are virtually unlimited† (Roger and Dominick 2006:5). Going by Roger’s statement, it is practically impossible to limit mass media research subject areas. Given that a research work can never be perfect, hence, the limitations of a research open the scope for further research work in the subject area. Here we have collected a number of original dissertation topics in mass media and journalism. dissertation topics in mass media and journalism usually address several ongoing practices in the field of journalism. However, it becomes difficult if the researcher focuses on a vast subject area for example the world cinema, which is a generalised topic and has no specific target. Hence, ideally it is suggested to narrow down the target and focus on a specific research question, which is a crucial part of research work. The biggest challenge in this field would be to get hold of participants and interviewees. Given media signifies a practical approach mainly rather than theoretical, hence, a media research depends a lot on whom we are interviewing which can range from a common man to a minister. The following ten categories are just some of the subjects that can be covered and not an exhaustive list.1. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Journalism/ News – Dissertation examples1.1 Representation of women journalists in the media. How are women journalists treated across the world and their limitations? 1.2 Newspaper readers pay unnecessarily for ads in which they are not interested, but newspapers can’t do without advertisements. Is there an alternative? 1.3 Night life and how it affects the youth in developed countries-a journalistic research. Night clubs, pubs, strip clubs, discotheques and its impact upon the teenage section of countries likeUSAandUK(You may refer to other countries as well). 1.4 Does the media industry follow Noam Chomsky’s Propaganda modelRefer to different countries and how they practise journalism. 1.5 Journalism and showbusiness: where does truth based and objective journalism stand today with the practice of infotainment based reporting worldwide? 1.6 Paparazzi, yellow journalism, and tabloidism- is this the future of journalism? 1.7 Political chaos in India. How would the current political turmoil in the UPA government affect its ties with neighbour countries? 1.8 A research of local media in Britain – choose a particular media and its representation of a particular community issue; what were the impacts for the local community?2. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Film/Cinema – Dissertation examples2.1 Bollywood and its profit margins. How Bollywood has changed India’s cultural economy? 2.2Hollywoodor Bollywood- which is biggerHow does the industry turnover contribute to the world market? 2.3 Is French cinema a national or global cinema? 2.4 South-East Asian films and other emerging film markets on the global arena. Threat to Hollywood? 2.5 YashRaj films and its overseas business over the years. Examine how the major Indian production houses like the YashRaj films have a hold worldwide? 2.6 What makes USA and UK the major business hub of Indian cinemaAn analysis of Indian global film market. 2.7 An examination of 3D technologies in cinema- its emergence and worldwide acceptance. 2.8 The music industry and its billion dollar profit. How does Pop, Rock, Classical, RnB, Bollywood music influence a nation’s economy? 2.9 How foreign collaborations and its competitive advantage proved beneficial for the film industry over the yearsFor example Slumdog Billionaire? 2.10 Indian cinema Vs Bollywood. Is Indian cinema not a part of Bollywood?3.Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – International journalism – Dissertation examples3.1 United Kingdom visa norms and its impact on the country’s economy. What can be the possible plans and strategies to cope with the massive monetary loss and tackle recession? 3.2 China has been the most efficient country in practising public diplomacy. Do you agree? 3.3 Globalisation and its impact upon the businesses of developing countries; specifically refer to India- a developing country facing economic slowdown but still a major player in the world market. 3.4 Stagnating economy of the United Kingdom. How can a developed country facing constant recession be safeguarded against the downfall of the nation? 3.5 Anti-Islam stance of the United States; even celebrities are not spared. The anti-Islam video has created fuss all over. How does this affect the image of Muslims in other countries? 3.6 How efficiently does the United Nations response to an emergency or crisis situation in any nation Examine how the UN practices propaganda, public diplomacy and psychological operations in controlling these situations. 3.7 Formation of media finally took shape during the Gulf War, the Somalia, Bosnia and Kosovo conflictDo you agree? 3.8 Psychological operations and propaganda are crucial to Iraq and Afghanistan’s nation building process? 3.9How does war reporting and the role of a journalist affect in forming or destroying the image of any nation?4. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Political and investigative reporting – Dissertation examples4.1 Critically analyse the UPA government’s functioning ahead of the parliamentary election in India in 2014. 4.2 Sonia Gandhi’s Italian roots and its impact on the future of India? 4.3 Corruption is synonymous with politics. Do you agree? 4.3 Power of America-what has made the USA the ultimate ruler? 4.4 Can there be any solution to Pakistan/Afghanistan/Iraq’s negative image worldwide(or any other country of your choice). Examine the role of mass media in fostering stereotypes and establishing images. 4.5 Politicians and political parties have lost their ideological drive. They are now driven by the goal of marketing/selling their ideas to the public. Do you agreeChoose a particular country. 4.6 Call centres are creating numerous jobs and helping the unemployed section of the society. This would be impossible without the assistance of media and journalists. Do you agreeSupport your answers with examples. 4.7 Creating adequate jobs and education system are still vague promises made by politicians in many countries. Probe into the realities of developing countries?5. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Business journalism – Dissertation examples5.1 Go Green- How would you go about promoting an online store for green leafy products/clothing to appeal for green revolution? 5.2Fashion portal- how does the world of fashion dominate business market todayAn analysis of business market of major countries. 5.3 Develop a social networking site and formulate ways to compete with popular sites such Facebook and Twitter. 5.4 Emergence of social networking sites and e-commerce. Examine how it changed the concept of business over the years? 5.5 3G countries and their contributions to the world economy. Analysing each of the countries growth rate and where it would stand by 2050. What are the implications?6. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Developmental journalism – Dissertation examples6.1 Dowry system and other dogmatic practices still prevalent in modern India. Examine media role in this issue and its implications upon development. 6.2 Primary education is still a distant dream for many countries. Research of the underdeveloped countries where the illiteracy rate is rising. Examine the role of media in tackling these issues. 6.3 Poverty, hunger, malnutrition still haunt the regions of Africa. What is the practical solutionHow can mass media contribute to alleviation of povertyExamine particular region/regions/countries in Africa. 6.4 Female Condoms-the latest discovery; discuss in-depth on how to go about promoting it. Discuss the risk factor of introducing it among the conservative societies. 6.5 Women molestation/rape is rampant now in India, are the officials listeningExamine the role of mass media in tackling the issue. 6.6 Is education/economic reform the way to transform a developing countryExamine the role of media in education promotion as a path to economic development.7. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Media discourses – Dissertation examples7.1. An examination of the role of media discourses in facilitating ethnic conflict. A case study / systematic review of the Bosnia Conflict. 7.2. The role of media in foreign policy: can mass media discourses influence foreign policy and why(The CNN effect).8. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Online media – Dissertation examples8.1 Can the web media revolution make the print media extinct? 8.2 Examine the role of social media in the Arab uprising. Was it the facilitator of peace or conflict?9. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Animation – Dissertation examples9.1 The film/advertising industry is incomplete with animation. Do you agree? 9.2 The world of cartoons and serious business. Analyse some of the cartoon giants and examine how they transformed a child’s play into billion dollar business. 9.3 The world of animation-both in theory and practise-you may also make a short animation film of your choice.10. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism Advertising /Public Relation/ Corporate communication/ Television production – Dissertation examples10.1 Media and advertising: Can media exist without advertising? 10.2 Public Relation and journalism: Are public relation professionals more satisfied than journalists? 10.3 Even big production companies cannot do without the PR industry, put forward evidence to prove. Tips Journalism/mass media requires more of a practical approach and even if any topic is theoretical, it is better to conduct interviews, surveys or other practical tests to be on the safe side. Harvard style of referencing applicable everywhere. Charts/ diagrams/ statistics add credit to the investigation. Some specific media sites like Media, Culture and Society and European Journal of Communication might be useful. Don’t forget to check out our most popular dissertation examples in mass media and journalism Free Essay – our site Essay

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Guide to Writing Argumentative Essays in Astronomy Easier Than You May Think

Guide to Writing Argumentative Essays in Astronomy Easier Than You May Think What is an Argumentative Essay in Astronomy? The main purpose of an argumentative essay lies in searching for articles and investigations concerning the chosen topic. The student should conduct his or her own research in order to collect detailed information and review the facts. Since the essay is argumentative, you should carefully explore literature and surveys with the opposing points of view or different theories in terms of the subject. Such a precise gathering of information is essential for the student to form an opinion and choose a viewpoint while reinforcing it with evidence provided by the research. Moreover, the essay should include an explicit thesis statement and rational argumentation. Speaking about peculiarities of the argumentative essays in astronomy, the main tip lies in selecting academic sources that deal with the recent astronomical news for the sake of receiving credible data. The student may choose reputable journals such as BBC News, The New York Times, and Nature or web sites of scientific organizations such as NASA, the American Astronomical Society, or the European Southern Observatory. What is more, the level of complexity in the articles may be high, meaning in both the selected subject and specific terminology. In order to embrace as much information as possible, the student may search for additional data published by scientists such as A Brief History of Time written by Steven Hawking. Such actions will result in a better understanding of the topic while demonstrating your knowledge to the professor. Since the student should provide logical reasoning, you will succeed in the former by describing data in his or her own words. For the sake of presen ting the argument, the student should paraphrase it in one or two sentences and provide a detailed explanation. Topics for Argumentative Essays in Astronomy Although astronomy seems to be complicated if the subject of the research concerns modern inventions and progress such as the launches of Space X spacecrafts, or simple if the investigations address well-known facts such as synchronous rotation of the Moon, there are several themes that are investigated on a regular basis. Therefore, such research always add recent information and attract the attention of scientific organizations. The First Image of the Black Hole; The Death of the Universe: Big Rip, Big Crunch, and Big Freeze; What is a Pulsar? What Is the Difference between a Pulsar and a Star? The Hubble, VLT, and FAST Telescopes; The Landing of Insight on Mars; Space X Launches of the Dragon Spacecraft. However, astronomy may also include some entertaining subject areas, for instance, theoretical reflections on the fascinating subjects: What if the Earth Stopped Rotating? The Giant Impact Hypothesis; Colonization of Asteroids; The Panspermia Theory. For example, if you choose the first topic Nature of the Black Holes, read the articles posted on the official NASA web site. First of all, you may introduce the subject starting with the main characteristics of a black hole. Secondly, you can choose the recent news about the first picture of the black hole and provide the facts such as a telescope, which was used to conduct investigation, the matter that was absorbed by the hole, information about the event horizon, and the processing of the image. The student should add precise information since the essay is argumentative. Speaking about the topic that considers Mars observations, the recent news provides the audience with data about marsquakes. You may use the web site Science Daily in order to extract detailed information about the above-mentioned phenomena. Moreover, the author compares earthquakes and marsquakes, which fills the article with sound argumentation and supporting facts. If the student chooses the topic about the Moon formation, he or she may consider the giant-impact theory that is described by the NASA scientists and the web site In order to learn more about astronomy and make writing easier in the future, the student may read about the most frequently used recent terms such as EHT (Event Horizon Telescope), gravitational lens, marsquake, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure), and heat probe. Prewriting Tips Even if you have an interesting topic, the students may often face such an obstacle as how to start writing the essay. First of all, in order to write a sound argumentative essay, you should decide which point of view you prefer to support. Confident position results in structured, sequential, and knowledgeable paper that demonstrates meticulous work. Moreover, professors appreciate it when students express their opinion while reinforcing it with scientific evidence. Conduct considerable investigation that involves contrary perspectives to be able to introduce persuasive facts for the supported point of view, along with the main points stated in the opposite opinion. The student should thoroughly read the articles and restate the main ideas in a subsequent manner. The third tip lies in gathering information about the topic from credible sources. What is more, the student should look through more than one scientific article as it will assist in choosing sound facts and broaden the com prehension of the subject. Sometimes, the person may face difficulties while reading and processing an immense amount of information. Therefore, some points may seem overly complicated, and the person starts to feel anxious. In order to avoid tension if you are not strong in the topic, choose an easier one. Furthermore, while reviewing the same text more than once, the student increases his or her understanding as it may be troublesome to notice every detail at the first attempt. If you have already chosen the standpoint in which you are convinced, but the ideas and words do not appear in your mind, you may start with making a list of the key points you need to cover in your essay. Writing the thoughts on the paper helps to concentrate and structure the arguments you want to mention. While looking at your written ideas, you can build the sequence in which your essay will provide the most reasonable objectives. For example, while writing about the marsquakes, the student may use the following list: Why detecting marsquakes is important to scientists? How does a marsquake differ from an earthquake? Which robot detected the first marsquake? Title/Thesis Statement/Body Paragraphs Since the title influences the decision of the reader whether he or she wants to read the essay or skip it, the student should pay a lot of attention to this issue. An outstanding title for an essay catches attention while summarizing the main subject of the paper. Moreover, it should be distinct from the plenty of other titles among which the reader would search for the fascinating one. The title should be brief but solid while transferring the sense of the essay. Right: ‘The First Image of the Black Hole’ Wrong: ‘Scientist Presented the First Image of the Black Hole’ A thesis statement is the crucial part of the essay as it summarizes its main points. While defining the primary aim of the paper, the thesis describes the topic concisely and generalizes its central issues. First of all, you should remember that the position of the statement is important as well. While reading the essay, the audience focuses on the introduction as it defines the topic of the research. Therefore, you should explain your purposes and arguments in the preface. The best position for a considerable thesis statement is the last sentence of the introduction. Therefore, the reader will get a general notion of the topic and its details and decide whether he or she is interested in the essay. You may structure the statement using the following words: although, therefore, because, and. Another advice for writing an outstanding thesis consists in combining two main points of the paper in one sentence. Right: ‘Therefore, the first picture of the black hole confirmed Einstein’s theory about the shadow cast by the abyss and well-known â€Å"event horizon† that encircled the hole.’ Wrong: ‘The Black Hole picture presented the â€Å"event horizon† – the circle of fire around the hole.’ In order to write consistent and argumentative body paragraphs, the argumentative essay should include a minimum of two arguments stated in the main body. The best way to write reasonable and detailed essay is to describe every argument in a separate paragraph. Such structure simplifies reading, and the audience will obtain a better understanding of the subject. Moreover, the paragraphs in the main body should be logically related to the thesis statement in the introduction. For example, the first paragraph of the body concerning the black hole should provide information about the shadow. The student may also briefly state the core idea of Einstein’s theory to support the evidence. The second paragraph should contain information about the â€Å"event horizon† – its form, matter, and interaction with the light. While indicating some numbers, such as the speed of light, the student makes the essay look more solid. One more advice lies in starting the paragraphs wit h the short summarized argument that is represented and uncovered in the main body. For example, the first paragraph of the body about the black hole may start the following way: ‘The shadow of the black hole was predicted by Albert Einstein in his famous theory of relativity.’ Outline The outline is the short plan of the essay where the student demonstrates the basis of his work. Such a scheme comprises the following parts: I. Introduction. In order to write a persuasive introduction, meaning the one which impresses the reader and catches his or her attention, you should explore the most fascinating matters in the topic. The reader will be interested in your investigation if you provide the reason that is essential and engaging enough to attract him or her to the topic of your essay. What is more, you should describe how your essay will assist in searching for the solution of the problem. The reader wants to know if the paper he or she considers provides needed information. For instance, if you are writing about the first image of the black hole, you may explain why this natural phenomenon interests scientists. After that, you may introduce the importance of the research and efforts of the scientific community as the reader should understand the significance of such an achievement as the picture of the black hole). II. Main body. You should start every new paragraph with the topic sentence that introduces the evidence or fact, which you want to develop in the particular passage. First argument (The shadow of the black hole was predicted by Albert Einstein in his famous theory of relativity). Further development of the topic. III. Main body. Second argument (The ring of light around the shadow is composed of fire, the matter that surrounds the black hole, and serves as a proof for space-time contortion). Further development of the topic. For example, you may refute the assertion that the image depicts the black hole itself, and add that in order to be more precise, the person should say that it is the image of the black hole’s shadow. VI. Conclusion (restate the thesis statement and core arguments). Post-writing Tips After the most fundamental part of the work had been finished, the student should always proofread the paper. Sometimes, he or she may gain inspiration and write the essay in one breath. However, you cannot control consistency, correctness, and relevance of the sentences perfectly all the time. Everybody makes mistakes, and you may reduce the number of errors by analyzing and proofreading your paper. Therefore, while scrutinizing the essay, the student would correct some inconsistencies and enhance the quality of the paper. The person should check the relevance of the information and its accuracy. The best way to review the essay lies in analyzing if it makes sense for the person who reads the paper for the first time. For example, in topics on astronomy, unfamiliar terminology may seem complicated to the reader. Therefore, the student should explain some notions in his or her own words or paraphrase definitions from the articles. Considering referencing, the student should know the format of the paper, for example, MLA, and read information about updates in formatting. However, the process may be time-consuming, especially if he or she writes about astronomy. Since the number of sources may be enormous, and the formatting differs for books, journals, and videos, the student may use such sites as or He or she should remember that citations must be listed in the alphabetical order. In conclusion, the student should check the linkage between all the parts of the essay. Since the mistakes have been corrected, and the references have been written on the last page, the student may reread the essay after a short break. Such a pause will assist in refreshing the focus and reviewing the paper from a different perspective. â€Æ' References Castelvecchi, D. (2019). Black Hole Pictured for First Time - in Spectacular Detail. Nature. Retrieved from NASAs InSight Detects First Likely Quake on Mars. (2019). Science Daily. Retrieved from National Science Foundation Announces New Diamond Achievement Award. (2019). National Science Foundation. Retrieved from Redd, N. (2017). How Was the Moon Formed. Retrieved from Smith, H. (2018). What Is a Black Hole? NASA. Retrieved from Soderman. (n.d.). NASA Scientist Jen Heldmann Describes How the Earth’s Moon Was Formed. NASA. Retrieved from Witze, A. (2019). First ‘Marsquake’ Detected on Red Planet. Nature. Retrieved from

Monday, October 21, 2019

Robert of Jumieges Essays

Robert of Jumieges Essays Robert of Jumieges Essay Robert of Jumieges Essay Another relevant reason as to why the crises of 1051 and 1052 were significant was because it showed the true authority and capabilities the earls had and the weakness and incapabilitys of the King. Edward knew that he would only ever be King in name unless he could destroy Godwins authority. McLynn quotes, If he did not take a stand against Godwin and his contumacious family he would be reduced to the status of figurehead King or cipher. The crises of 1051-52 merely clarified this fact that the King just did not have the power to make any grand scale decisions. Everything was decided either in advance for the King or on the spot for him. He was forced into marrying Godwins daughter Edith for example. Now what possible reason could there be to suggest that Edward actually wanted to wed Edith. Apart from the fact that she was much younger than he was she just happened to be a daughter of the man he hated most who just wanted some Godwin blood on the throne. Another example would be the incident of Eustace of Bologne where he couldnt even force an earl to punish his own men; he was taken to trial. So it was clearly obvious that these events of 1051 and 52 showed just how much authority Edward didnt have in terms of decision making. But it was not only in his decision-making that Edward lacked the power needed but also in terms of his strength on the battlefield. In preparation for his first battle with Godwin Edward tried desperately to get the remaining two earls Leofric and Siward to support him. Leofric was particularly reluctant to help out but in the end the end decided on doing so. This then resulted in Godwin having to accept defeat and being exiled from the country. However when Godwin returned for part two of the battle the earls basically refused bluntly to help Edward in any way shape or form. Without the assistance of the earls Edward was defenceless and weak. He therefore had to accept Godwins terms and let his most hated enemy run his country. It is therefore obvious that the King had no control over his own actions unless he had the support of at least one earl. A significant long-term effect of the crises of 1051-52 was also the beginning of the Godwins dominance on the country. With Godwin now virtually running the nation he could put anyone wherever and whenever he wanted. Harold Godwinson then succeeded Godwin on to the earl of Wessex when he died and also became he head of his large and popular family. As earl Harold could use his assets to help him perform his duties for the king more effectively. Then on the 6th of January 1066 Godwins life long dream was established when his son, a man of pure Godwin blood, was crowned king of England. One son was King another an earl. The Godwin reign had begun. Godwin was a true family man and the events during 1051-52 express this. This theory was particularly apparent when he forced Edward into marrying his daughter in the chance that they would have a son of Godwin blood who would be heir to the throne. Unfortunately for Godwin this did not work out for a number of different reasons. Godwin also showed his dedication to having his family stay as one in England so when he was gone they could be a formidable force, when he desperately pleaded with King Edward for his eldest son Swein to be forgiven and be able to return. Surely committing a sin as hostile as he did any other father would disown him however this was never the case for Godwin. He eventually did get his way and Swein was allowed to return only for him to unexpectedly die on a pilgrimage seeking penance from God. Harold was also Earl of East Anglia for eight years whilst the confrontations between Edward and Godwin had gone on. So for the Godwins they would have felt they gained an extremely vast mount out of the crises of 1051 and 52. Looking back on the Crises of 1051 and 1052 Historians will probably feel that the most significant result was the confusion and controversy over the successor to Edwards throne. There would never have been any confusion or arguments over this only if Edwards wife had given birth to a son. Of course this was not to happen for a number of reasons, possibly he was too religious, or maybe he did not want any grandson of Godwin being heir to the throne. However either way a son of Edward just was not to be. Therefore when Edward did eventually die there was a number of people who lied claim to he throne. A major contender at the time, however the more historians look back on it the more it seems unlikely was William. This claim was apparently true on a number of accounts. There were two main suggestions as to why William could possibly have become Williams successor to the throne. The first, rather unbelievable but at the same time still a suggestion, was that William visited Edward in 1051 and was apparently promised the throne there and then. The second, a little more believable, was that Edward sent Robert of Jumieges to promise the throne and as a sign that this offer was authentic to also give Godwins hostages Wulfnoth (son) and Hakon (Grandson). This supposedly took place in 1051 and was supposedly agreed by both Edward and Stigand (the in between man who was trusted by both Edward and Godwin). This theory therefore has a perfectly legitimate claim. However why would Edward choose William? The Normans came up with three reasons. One They were very distant relations and therefore someone of the same blood. Two It was an almost thank you gesture for helping him out in 1043 when he had fled to Normandy. And finally because Edward apparently felt William was the best man for the job (taking into consideration that he was only fourteen at the time). It was also claimed that Edward was desperate to keep some Norman influence in England. There maybe quite a bit of evidence backing up Williams claim, however the evidence to say it was a false claim is undoubtedly more reliable and realistic. For example there were many others with much better claims to the throne (Earl Ralph, Edward Aething etc. ). Edward also had no great love of Normandy. He was never treated well there nor was he ever welcomed there. McLynn writes A vague promise was made but it was not genuine. On the other hand Barlow writes in his book Edward had already promised the throne to Swein Estrithson. He just used the nomination as a diplomatic card. The more realistic and probably true having known the type of character Robert of Jumieges was is written by Walker and it basically says that the promise was made by Jumieges when escaping after 1052. He had hostages with him and made the offer out of spite for Godwin and because he wanted William to re-instate him. In conclusion I feel that the period in history which was the crises of 1051-52 were a significant time for the Countrys history. The two years contained controversy, countless squabbles, treason, backstabbing and violence. The main consequences of the crises were, a long exhausting and humiliating defeat for Edward, a huge gain for Godwin who laid the foundations for the next generation and a lot of controversy caused mainly by a certain individual known as Robert of Jumieges.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

5 Reasons to Start a Writing Group

5 Reasons to Start a Writing Group 5 Reasons to Start a Writing Group 5 Reasons to Start a Writing Group By Mark Nichol You know about writing groups folks who meet at regular intervals to share excerpts from works in progress, exchange tips and information, and discuss conventions such as character, plot, narrative, and tone. But you’ve always shrugged the idea off yet it keeps coming back. Maybe you should reconsider. Here’s why: 1. Discipline Starting a writing group helps you develop deadline discipline because you are accountable for being ready for the next meeting. Such a support structure is a great cure for procrastination and practice for turning manuscripts in on time. 2. Motivation Meeting with kindred spirits helps motivate you to keep trying in the face of adversity, whether it’s in the form of a busy schedule or writer’s block. Writing is by necessity a solitary pursuit but only when you’re pecking away at your keyboard. Interacting at intervals with a small community of like-minded people will give you the nudges you need. 3. Support You’ll benefit from the empathy of others who have also received rejection letters or, just like you, have felt that they didn’t have what it takes to succeed. A writing group will encourage you without being ingratiating. 4. Edification You’ll learn from others and feel a boost of confidence when others acknowledge the value of your advice and information. Whether or not you’re comfortable with your grasp of the building blocks of writing character and the other aspects I mentioned above you’ll note alternative approaches, and it’ll make you feel good to offer your own. Besides learning and teaching about the craft of writing, you can exchange ideas about research and taking notes; finding competitions, publications, or an agent; and preparing pitches and proposals. Remember this: Teaching is one of the most effective ways to learn. 5. Feedback Most important, you’ll get objective, instructive feedback not only on your works in progress but also on your pitches. Go ahead and ask your partner or close friends to evaluate your writing, but consider how much more you will get out of honest, informed responses from people without emotional attachments to you. Why Me? Starting your own group, rather than joining a new or existing one, allows you to call the shots at least when it comes to forming the group. Don’t be the mom; just set the parameters: group size and meeting setting, type or length of writing form, method and other ground rules for presenting works in progress, and so on. And you get to select your compatriots for compatibility with you and your goals and guidelines. The Next Chapter So, now that I’ve convinced you about the why, how about the how? Stay tuned. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:85 Synonyms for â€Å"Help†34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better Writer10 Writing Exercises to Tighten Your Writing

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Organizational Plan Implementation I Research Paper

Organizational Plan Implementation I - Research Paper Example The Need for Electronic Medical Records in Psychiatric Hospital Setting The term Electronic Medical Records (EMR) refers to clinical and managerial utilities of technologies, which include electronic prescribing, billing, computerized physician order entry (CPOE), reporting, record keeping as well as documentation. Psychiatric hospitals are characterized by bulk data records and the kind of patients who are likely to complain on the quality of services given by nurses. EMR implementation will enhance proper, essential, and up to date record keeping for amicable resolution of any controversies or ligations and ensure quality services in psychiatric hospitals. Nurses play a major role in psychiatric hospitals and are required to keep records used by other colleagues such as physicians in making decisions regarding mental patients. Implementing Electronic Medical Record keeping procedure to substitute paper-based medical records will give medical care givers including nurses more time t o focus on caregiving (Sharfstein, Dickerson, & Oldham, 2009). By implementing EMR, it will be easy for nurses to notice and correct any inefficiency. Additionally, EMR will allow installation of other programs such as automatic communication, which helps in improving the quality of services in psychiatric hospitals where patients require frequent attention from nurses (Sharfstein, Dickerson, & Oldham, 2009). Implementing EMR in psychiatric hospitals will enable cooperation between different departments thus enhance making of decisions regarding patients since electronically saved data will be easily and simultaneously accessed by different departments (Luo, 2006). Proper use of EMR will promote early identification and apposite treatment of potentially violent psychiatric patient behaviors. In the long run EMR will protect individual nurses and other care providers from allegations of bad record-keeping. Additionally, EMR keeping is easy and will ensure that professional and legal welfare of nurses are not undermined by lack or incomplete records (Luo, 2006). Organizational and Individual Barriers to Implementation of EMR There are significant challenges that would affect the implementation of EMR in psychiatric hospitals. One of the major challenges would be finances. Implementation of EMR requires a lot of money to buy the EMR systems and training. Psychiatric hospitals are characterized by financial limitations since the services offered cannot yield sufficient funds to implement and maintain such a program. To resolve this I would advise the hospitals to seek financial assistance from donors in addition to seeking government funding. Another challenge concerns patient’s privacy since EMR would lead to possible access of patient’s information by other parties who may use it for selfish or harmful motives. Most psychiatric hospitals are still lacking technological clarity regarding disclosure of patient health information to secondary sources. This problem will not be too rampant since the HIPPA act clearly explains on disclosure of private health information. Additionally, I will encourage hospital management to offer training regarding prevention of PHI to wrong parties (Luo, 2006). An additional challenge is that psychiatric hospitals possess a lot of bulk paper records thus it would be difficult and burdensome to convert such records to electronic records. To ease the work, the conversion

Friday, October 18, 2019

REPORT OF NURSING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

REPORT OF NURSING - Essay Example Initially, some relevant statistics on stress in America would be presented prior to expounding on the causes and effects, as required. The statistics on stress have been monitored by Stress in America where the results have been published in the official website of the American Psychological Association (APA) as patterns were reportedly decreasing, over the past five years, as shown in Figure 1, below: Likewise, the report revealed that â€Å"more than 9 in 10 (94 percent) adults believe that stress can contribute to the development of major illnesses, such as heart disease, depression and obesity, and that some types of stress can trigger heart attacks, arrhythmias and even sudden death, particularly in people who already have cardiovascular disease (92 percent)† (APA, 2012, par. 12). The health-related concerns have been proven to be triggered by stress factors as presented below: The causes of stress was clearly illustrated in Figure 2 as ranging from financial factors, work, the status of the economy, relationships, responsibilities in the family, health problems that affect one’s family members, personal health problems, job stability, costs of housing, and personal safety, in decreasing order. The statistics revealed that in 2011, people become increasingly irritable or prone to anger (42%); feels nervous or anxious (39%); are easily fatigued (37%); feels depressed or sad (37%); have manifested lack of interest or motivation (35%); develops headache (32%); tendencies to cry (30%); complains of upset stomach or indigestion (24%) and exemplifies muscular tension (24%). These all confirm that different causes of stress directly impact people, as manifested through the physical and health concerns, as identified above. American Institute of Stress. N.d. Stress, Definition of Stress, Stressor, What is Stress? Eustress? [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 13 March

Organizational Structure and Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Organizational Structure and Culture - Essay Example As indicated in the earlier paragraph, such an organizational set up uses charts that show the hierarchy of responsibilities and how their roles are divided. An organizational chart is a diagrammatic expression of the positions and departments found in an organization. It is also important in defining the relationship between them. An organizational chart is important in playing a number of roles that include;- showing the formal organizational relationships between different people and departments in the organization, enhancing channels of communication and hence improving the way information flows in the organization and lastly it helps one to know whom they are accountable to. This is very important in any nursing set up to eliminate the confusion that can be created if they could be working in an informal set up where the role s and responsibilities of the various people playing part was not clearly defined. Organizational charts include vertical ones which run from up to bottom while left to right have the highest rank on the left and the others follow to the right. In our study I used a vertical chart. An example used has the board of directors as the premier heads of the organization. They are responsible for making core decisions regarding the organization. In case the hospital is government owned or accountable to a higher body they are the ones who will be accountable. They decide on what is good for the hospital and through the suggestions laid before them by people in the lower levels in the rank they can decide on how to address each problem in the organization. The hospital administration follows in the rank. This is a group of people who are selected to oversee the day to day running of the hospital and trouble shoot problems as they emanate. They handle different departments in the hospital which makes the positions very delicate and need to be handled by diligent personnel who cannot

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Cross Cultural Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cross Cultural Management - Assignment Example The Interactive Ochre –Newsflash not only increase but also promote cultural awareness of the people in the Aboriginal culture and issues as one of Australia’s indigenous cultures. Nevertheless, a lot of effort needs to be emphasized based on beliefs and culture, even though countries have come a long way to go. Considerably, it is necessary to look at the beliefs, values, ideas, and attitudes that the Aboriginal people indigenous cultures think about as members of society. In addition, to the material object of their cultures that finally shape up the normative patterns of Aboriginal people behavior more specifically the Anangu people. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park holds a traditional belief system of the Anangu people as it remains one of the most visited parks in Australia. Even though, Anangu is an Aboriginal community that resides next to and within Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, they hold closely to their cultural tie with the park as they pay extra attention to anything that happens within the park as they remain as custodians (Australian Government, 2006, p.11). As taught through the lyrics they respect the park as stipulated by their ancestors through the Tjukurpa as they seek not to be judged from the color of their skin but from knowing more from the beauty within their heritage in the park. More so, for the Anangu community some of the cultural elements as they work and interact with non-Aboriginal people is characterized and guided by their beliefs, values, ideas and attitudes that have a long history from their ancestors Tjukaritja. As a result, some sensitive cultural issues are evident that affect the existence of relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in present-day society. Through the culture of the Aboriginal community, an individual is able to identify the heritage and worldview of the Anangu people based on the conservation of the park. Most of the practices carried out by the Anangu people are influence d by their culture that they adopted from the ancestors. As the custodians of their ancestors who have lived in Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park area for at least 22,000 years, they learn about aspects of their culture that they have never seen or heard. More significantly, individuals from the Anangu people follow the example of their elders, as they remain associated with various ceremonies attributed to various types of plants and food (Holden, 2011 p. 105). As a result, they exalt Tjukurpa who are the community founders. All plants are linked to ancestral beings that are used for several purposes including food, firewood, medicines, tobacco, and making ornaments (Thomas, 2008 p. 153). More importantly, the Anangu people ensure that wrong people including both the non- Aboriginal men and women do not get access to sacred sites. As a result, they give warnings through their newsflash lyrics that people should not walk in places where angels fear to tread signifying the upholding of beliefs (Australian Government, 2006, p.11).

Essay about Adolf Hitler was evil but not monstrous

About Adolf Hitler was evil but not monstrous - Essay Example Hitler was a man of his time when many European leaders tended to be nationalists who pursued the national interests of their countries to the exclusion of all others. Hitler’s contemporaries in Europe such as Stalin in Russia and Mussolini in Italy are examples of nationalist leaders who were dictators in their own countries and had absolute power over their people (Duckett). While this has been the case, these leaders, with the exception of Hitler, have largely been exonerated by historians, as the latter has been labelled as evil as well as a monster. It can therefore be said of Adolf Hitler that, while his actions may have been evil, they were not monstrous because of his belief that he was doing them for the benefit and glory of the Germanic race. These are normal human impulses which almost all patriotic individuals in the world often aspire to; to ensure the national development as well as the achievement of greatness for their people. Adolf Hitler, while committing great evil in the massacre of the Jews, was still a very human character comparable to other great leaders such as Genghis Khan and Stalin who despite killing thousands if not millions of people, continue to be worshipped as heroes. One will find that, despite the fact that Hitler and Stalin were on opposite sides during the Second World War, Hitler was a keen admirer of the latter. He believed that, under Stalin’s rule, Russia had achieved a semblance of order. Hitler felt that Stalin was the best thing that had happened to Russia because of the fact that he ruled the country from his office using a bureaucracy which did everything as he commanded it. In one instance, Hitler declared that Stalin was a ruthless man who was willing to sacrifice anything to ensure that he remained in power. In fact, Hitler suggested that were the Russians to be overwhelmed by the Germans, Stalin would

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Cross Cultural Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cross Cultural Management - Assignment Example The Interactive Ochre –Newsflash not only increase but also promote cultural awareness of the people in the Aboriginal culture and issues as one of Australia’s indigenous cultures. Nevertheless, a lot of effort needs to be emphasized based on beliefs and culture, even though countries have come a long way to go. Considerably, it is necessary to look at the beliefs, values, ideas, and attitudes that the Aboriginal people indigenous cultures think about as members of society. In addition, to the material object of their cultures that finally shape up the normative patterns of Aboriginal people behavior more specifically the Anangu people. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park holds a traditional belief system of the Anangu people as it remains one of the most visited parks in Australia. Even though, Anangu is an Aboriginal community that resides next to and within Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, they hold closely to their cultural tie with the park as they pay extra attention to anything that happens within the park as they remain as custodians (Australian Government, 2006, p.11). As taught through the lyrics they respect the park as stipulated by their ancestors through the Tjukurpa as they seek not to be judged from the color of their skin but from knowing more from the beauty within their heritage in the park. More so, for the Anangu community some of the cultural elements as they work and interact with non-Aboriginal people is characterized and guided by their beliefs, values, ideas and attitudes that have a long history from their ancestors Tjukaritja. As a result, some sensitive cultural issues are evident that affect the existence of relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in present-day society. Through the culture of the Aboriginal community, an individual is able to identify the heritage and worldview of the Anangu people based on the conservation of the park. Most of the practices carried out by the Anangu people are influence d by their culture that they adopted from the ancestors. As the custodians of their ancestors who have lived in Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park area for at least 22,000 years, they learn about aspects of their culture that they have never seen or heard. More significantly, individuals from the Anangu people follow the example of their elders, as they remain associated with various ceremonies attributed to various types of plants and food (Holden, 2011 p. 105). As a result, they exalt Tjukurpa who are the community founders. All plants are linked to ancestral beings that are used for several purposes including food, firewood, medicines, tobacco, and making ornaments (Thomas, 2008 p. 153). More importantly, the Anangu people ensure that wrong people including both the non- Aboriginal men and women do not get access to sacred sites. As a result, they give warnings through their newsflash lyrics that people should not walk in places where angels fear to tread signifying the upholding of beliefs (Australian Government, 2006, p.11).

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Implementation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Implementation - Essay Example Creating Liasoning agents and Integrators within the organization: since the organization has formal structures the first step towards becoming a learning organization is to increase communication and coordination between departments and units, initially it needs to assign liasoning and integrating jobs to personnel and gradually move on to create task force and teams. Team Development: members from each unit/department should be identified to form a task force. This task force should regularly meet and set goals and monitor results regarding the solution to the current challenge being faced by the organization. Market Intelligence and Information Distribution System: Johnson and Johnson should improve it's existing or if not already existing, it should set up sound market intelligence and distribution systems. The unit should collect information on consumer preferences, competitor activities, and upcoming technologies and share it with all the unit managers to gear up the whole organization to increase the flow in its product development pipeline. Monetary and Technological Help to promising startup companies and entrepreneurs: since the company is finding hard to find more and more startup companies produc

Monday, October 14, 2019

Dna Digestion and Electrophoresis Essay Example for Free

Dna Digestion and Electrophoresis Essay In this experiment we will be doing a process called as DNA digestion or also known as restriction digest. A restriction digest is a procedure used in molecular biology to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing. It is sometimes termed DNA fragmentation, scientists Hartl and Jones describe it this way: This enzymatic technique can be used for cleaving DNA molecules at specific sites, ensuring that all DNA fragments that contain a particular sequence have the same size; furthermore, each fragment that contains the desired sequence has the sequence located at exactly the same position within the fragment. The cleavage method makes use of an important class of DNA-cleaving enzymes isolated primarily from bacteria. These enzymes are called restriction endonucleases or restriction enzymes, and they are able to cleave DNA molecules at the positions at which particular short sequences of bases are present. The resulting digested DNA is very often selectively amplified using PCR, making it more suitable for analytical techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, andchromatography. It is used in genetic fingerprinting, and RFLP analysis. [1] Just as mentioned above, for this experiment we will be using restriction enzymes. Restriction enzymes or restriction endonuclease are enzymes isolated from bacteria that recognize specific sequences in DNA and then cut the DNA to produce fragments, called restriction fragments. They play a very important role in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules, as is done in gene cloning experiments. [2] Restriction endonucleases such as EcoRI recognize specific palindromic sequences and cleave a phosphodiester bond on each strand at that sequence. After digestion with a restriction endonuclease the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and their size can be estimated. A restriction map is generated by using the fragment size data to determine the location of the specific endonuclease recognition sequences on the plasmid. Each restriction enzyme requires specific reaction conditions for optimum activity. One of the most important reaction conditions which varies between different restriction enzymes is the salt concentration. Enzyme buffers are specifically formulated to provide the salt concentration for optimal enzyme activity. It is important, therefore, that the correct buffer solution is used for a particular restriction enzyme. [3] For this experiment we also made use of agarose gel electrophoresis, which takes a lot of time. Electrophoresis may be the main technique for molecular separation in todays cell biology laboratory. In spite of the many physical arrangments for the apparatus, and regardless of the medium through which molecules are allowed to migrate, all electrophoretic separations depend upon the charge distribution of the molecules being separated. Electrophoresis can be one dimensional or two dimensional. One dimensional electrophoresis is used for most routine protein and nucleic acid separations. Two dimensional separation of proteins is used for finger printing , and when properly constructed can be extremely accurate in resolving all of the proteins present within a cell. The support medium for electrophoresis can be formed into a gel within a tube or it can be layered into flat sheets. The tubes are used for easy one dimensional separations, while the sheets have a larger surface area and are better for two- dimensional separations. In electrophoresis, proteins are separated on the basis of charge, and the charge of a protein can be either + or , depending upon the pH of the buffer. In normal operation, a column of gel is partitioned into three sections, known as the Separating or Running Gel, the Stacking Gel and the Sample Gel. The sample gel may be eliminated and the sample introduced via a dense non-convective medium such as sucrose. Electrodes are attached to the ends of the column and an electric current passed through the partitioned gels. If the electrodes are arranged in such a way that the upper bath is (cathode), while the lower bath is + (anode), and anions are allowed to flow toward the anode, the system is known as an anionic system. Flow in the opposite direction, with + cations flowing to the cathode is a cationic system. [4] 1. 2. 3. 4.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Development of Competent Nursing Skills

Development of Competent Nursing Skills Introduction This essay focuses on a reflection on the development from novice, to competent beginner, to skilled practitioner in the light of my own development in clinical nursing practice. It is based on the signposts identified within my clinical learning portfolio and focuses on the notion of the helping role and caring skills within nursing practice. It utilises a reflective framework to better identify and reflect upon the journey from novice to practitioner. The model for reflection I have chosen is Gibbs Reflective Cycle (see Appendix). Reflection has been described as as a process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience which creates and clarifies meaning in terms of self, and which results in a changed conceptual perspective (Boyd and Fales, 1983). Therefore, the experiences of my three placements are explored under three rotations of Gibbs Cycle. Meretoja et al (2004) state that nurses self-recognition of own level of competence is essential in maintaining high standards of care. I have chosen the caring role based on my own recognition of the level of competence achieved in this area. Cycle One Novice to Advanced beginner What Happened. I had to assist a patient in with personal care; make them comfortable in bed and collaborate in pressure area management; assist with toileting, washing, mouthcare, and application of emollient cream. I also had to document care and any deviations from the norm. Feelings I was very aware of my inexperience and of the trust this patient placed in my and the nursing team. I was also aware of the intimate nature of the care I was providing, and the fact that it was basic care also highlighted the fundamental role such care has in supporting health promotion and patient wellbeing. Evaluation I was uncomfortable at first, and clumsy in the provision of the various aspects of care. However, my mentor was informative, supportive and helpful, which assisted me in doing the various tasks. However, I found it difficult to complete these as quickly as I should have. I did learn to communicate with the patient and provide a sensitive approach. Analysis This situation required fundamental aspects of the caring role. It also demonstrates the link between basic nursing care an every other aspect of nursing. The NMC (2004) requires nurses to provide individualised care for their patients. The care for this person was based on their own needs and adapted as those needs changed. I was able to identify those needs and develop competency in providing care at this level. The caring role was very rewarding but physically and emotionally taxing However, I was still in the process of identifying particular needs and responding to them, such as toileting, which required me working with others in a collaborative manner, which I did not find easy. I also realised how much I did not know about nursing. Conclusion In this situation, I could have developed more collaborative working skills and modelled myself on those around me more actively ie., copied the ways in which other nurses and healthcare assistants provided care. When I did do this, it was effective. But I found that despite my enthusiastic approach, my knowledge base meant that I did not always understand the rationale for what I was doing. Action Plan The action plan from this was to take the confidence and competence I had developed in the practical skills and incorporate them into all aspects of the caring role. It was also to identify areas where my knowledge base was lacking, and seek out this knowledge. Keeping knowledge up to date is a requirement of the NMC code of condut (NMC, 2004). Working collaboratively is another NMC requirement (NMC, 2004). Taking this knowledge forward into practice made this process of reflection a learning activity. Cycle Two Advanced Beginner What Happened As part of my role assisting with patient care, I had to monitor pain levels and assist with providing analgesia as prescribed, along with monitoring its effectiveness. This was a surgical placement, and I also discussed with elderly patient their coping and wellbeing after hospital discharge. I engaged in health education and support to enable clients to be self-caring. I was also responsible for monitoring wellbeing through performing and recording clinical observations, recording fluid balance and reporting any abnormalities. I was also involved in providing personal care to patients in a safe manner, especially in the disposal of waste products. Feelings To begin with, I felt glad to be working at a more advanced level of competency, and felt confident in my basic nursing skills including performing clinical observations. However, the increased demand also meant increased pressure and I was aware of this. Again, I felt that I had developed a degree of competency but was very aware of my need to develop further knowledge and skills. The caring role involved supporting people and I had to access other professionals to ensure I gave the right information and that my care had been effective. Evaluation It was good to find that I had the clinical competence to effectively monitor clinical status. However, the complex nature of patient needs meant that I still didn’t always know the answers to their questions. Being involved in discharge planning was an enabling activity for myself and the patients. I developed competence in the administration of medications, under supervision, including controlled drugs, but felt I still needed more practice and skill in this area. Colleagues noted my competence and qualified staff were happy to delegate a range of appropriate tasks to me. Analysis It would appear that the caring role means the provision of patient centred, holistic care. This was achievable in this situation but required a lot of knowledge and the ability to provide focused attention and empathic care whilst carrying out complex clinical nursing tasks. This was harder to achieve, and I was made aware of my continued learning needs around medication and surgical care, for example. However, I must have developed some competence as qualified staff were happy to delegate to me and to act on my feedback. Conclusion It is hard to see what else I could have done, except perhaps done more reading around surgical care, discharge planning and the nurse-patient relationship. Action Plan It was possible to identify future learning needs, and so my action plan included building on my current competence by engaging in more advanced practice, under supervision. Having the confidence to engage in more complex nursing tasks will help me to achieve more competence in advanced practice in the future. Recognising the demands of the caring role means that I will view future practice as based upon this role. Cycle Three Competent Level What Happened. I monitored patients with chronic pain and helped with analgesia. I also supported patients with freedom of choice for their own care (NMC, 2004) and provided personal and palliative care in sensitive manner. I mastered more advanced practical nursing skills including aseptic technique and safe disposal of sharps. I fully documented all care given, and recorded medication given, and communicated to staff at shift change during the nursing handover. Feelings During this experience, I felt that my knowledge and experience in the caring role was finally coming together. I was confident and happy in engaging with patients and providing empathy and a supportive manner, whilst also carrying out more complex clinical tasks appropriately and effectively. It was very nerve-wracking giving handover, but I became more confident as I had more practice. Evaluation I was able to provide care of a high standard, and recognise my sphere of competence and seek help when needed. I was able to engage in effective caring relationships with clients, meet their individual needs, but also value my own input into their wellbeing. Analysis It was obvious that I had moved on to a level of nursing competence which allowed me some autonomy. I was able to act with less direct supervision, but still access the support of the whole care team. The caring role extended to the provision of all care, including end of life care, and I was able to utilise my knowledge and experience and also identify my learning in action, and my future learning needs, which have changed since the first reflection. Conclusion The change from novice to competent practitioner in the caring role has demonstrated not only the acquisition of skill but the incorporation of clinical abilities into what is really a way of being with patients. Action Plan Signposting future learning needs is important following this reflection. I was able to identify the need to still learn advanced clinical skills and perhaps know more about the range of other professionals who could enhance care in individual situations. Conclusion This reflection has signposted my development towards competent nursing practice. The caring role encompasses provision of basic care, advanced techniques, medication and pain relief, health promotion, end of life care and collaborative care. It seems to be the fundamental and most important part of nursing practice. Collaboration and coordination, as well as the holistic management of the situation, are highly recognized as meaningful characteristics of competent nursing practice (Meretoja et al, 2002). References Boyd E, Fales A. (1983) Reflecting learning: key to learning from experience. Humanist Psychol 23 (2) 99–117. Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing. A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic, Oxford Meretoja, R., Leino-Kilpi, H. Kair, A. (2004) Comparison of nurse competence in different hospital work environments Journal of NursingManagement.12(5) 329–336 Meretoja, R., Eriksson, E. Leino-Kilpi, H. (2002) Indicators for competent nursing practice Journal of Nursing Management 10(2) 95-102 Nursing and Midwifery Council (2004) Code of Conduct Available from Accessed 30-4-07.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Blaze of Life :: essays research papers

The Blaze of Life Picture this, a young beautiful girl smiling and standing by a big gum tree. On the surface you might think this is a pleasant picture. But then you take a closer look. She is standing there looking at a fire, but not just any fire, it is a fire of her house. But not only is her house burning down, her mother and sister is also burning in the fire. Even though her family and house is burning down to the ground, we just see her standing there. She is just staring intently at the fire, not doing anything and not being panicked at all. Somehow this picture does not seem right. Should she not be screaming or crying or getting help? In Alice Walker’s â€Å"Everyday Use (For Your Grandma)†, this picture of the fire, is presented to us from a story told by the girls mother. This fire, along with Characterization, setting, and dialogue, lead one to believe that the fire was the start of the mother’s loss of power. And the beginning of Dee’s, the beautiful girl, rise to power. From the very beginning the story there is a sense that Dee has a bit of an â€Å"upper hand† in the family. But why does the mother and Dee’s sister Maggie cower to Dee? Why is what Dee thinks and wants so important?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the beginning of the story, the mother describes Maggie as being not exceptionally beautiful. In fact, she is described as looking like a lame animal. She walks like she has been left on the side of the road, â€Å". . .chin on chest, eyes on the ground, feet in shuffle†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (292-3). She even cowers in the corner when asking her mother how she looks for fear she does not look beautiful. On the hand, Dee is described as being very beautiful. The mother says that, â€Å"Dee is lighter then Maggie, with nicer hair and a fuller figure† (293). So Maggie already feels that Dee is a little â€Å"above† her in the way of looks. But why does she cower behind Dee as if she is in Dee’s shadow?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the story, the mother has a dream about reuniting with Dee. In her dream she thinks: Maggie will be nervous until after her sister goes: she will stand hopelessly in corners, homely and ashamed of the burn scars down her arms and legs, eyeing her sister with a mixture of envy and awe.

Friday, October 11, 2019

History of the United States

The successive phase of mining contributed by subduing the continent. The mining frontier attracted population and wealth as well as advertising the found wonders of he west. The founding of metals helped finance the Civil War as it facilitated the building of railroads, enabled the Treasury to continue specie payments, and brought the silver issue into American politics. Cattle raising contributed to the settlement of the Great West by creating a new profitable business that easily sprang up into existence â€Å"as a main pillar of the economy'.And lastly, the successive phase of farming contributed to the settlement of the Great West by contributing to new inventions and techniques used in farming that made it easier and more convenient. . There were various social, ethnic, environmental, and economic factors that made the trans-Mississippi west a unique region among the successive American frontiers. Native Americans made their last and final attempt at colonization in the trans- Mississippi west and still reside there today.Since their â€Å"Anglo† culture collided with that of Hispanic culture, the southwest remains the most Hispanicize region in America. The scale and severity of the environment brought challenges to human ambitions and the environment continued to form a social and political life. The federal government has played a massive role in the trans-Mississippi west economic and social development like in no other region. 4. There were many factors that made western farmers economically vulnerable even as they were expanding their agricultural production in the Great West.High prices had forced farmers into plating single â€Å"cash† crops and use their profits to purchase manufactured goods and foodstuffs at the general store. Large-scale farmers were entering the business world as they were becoming tied to banking, railroading, and manufacturing. They had to ay expensive machinery in order to speed up production of crops, especi ally wheat. Such widespread use of these expensive machines called for first class management. Many farmers were unskilled though, and put the blame on railroads and banks for their losses.Once farmers had stuck with the idea of single cash crops, their stability was either well or poor, when prices were high all went well and when the prices were low then farmers had to dwell on bankruptcy. 5. There were many strong points in the Farmers' Alliances as well as many weaknesses. The strongest points of the Farmers' Alliance were that the embers all agreed on the goals of the Alliance such as, the need to nationalize railroads, abolish national banks, institute a graduated income tax, and create a new federal substructures.Their crusade was an impassioned one and they seemed unstoppable as their efforts to relieve the misfortunes of the farmer were becoming noticed and unavoidable. The Farmers' Alliance weakest points were that they did not think to include more farmers that would have proved to be more useful and represent a greater and stronger organization. Its programs were only targeted at those who had owned their land. They had ignored and excluded the plight of landless tenant farmers, sharecroppers, framework's, and black farmers who made up nearly half of the agricultural population.The farmers' protests scared eastern interests so badly because they were gaining political strength, which was unwanted from the farmers of the South and West. 6. There were various actual effects of the frontier on American society at different stages of its development. Some of those actual effects of the frontier consist of ones that helped transform both the region and nation. The national character was shaped by the westward movement. Hazard of the western wilderness such as distance, deserts, drought, and Indians transformed Europeans into Americans.What was valuable in Frederick Jackson Turners ‘frontier thesis† despite its being discredited by subsequent historians was that the idea of it was based on his belief that the frontier helped to shape and mold the American national character, and that it marked the edge of civilization that included diverse cultures, ideas and traditions. Chapter 28: 7. There were many economic and political effects of the Republicans' high tariff, high-spending policies of the early asses. Some of those economic and political effects consist of a quarrel between the Republicans and the Democrats over a quorum.The Republican House speaker, Thomas B. Reed had took to make changes to the House rules. He had pieced out quorums and therefore he counted as present certain Democrats in the chamber who had not answered the roll and denied that they were present. The fifty-first, or â€Å"Billion-Dollar' congress created expensive legislators. 8. Cleveland response to the depression of 1893 created labor and farmer unrest and divided the Democratic Party. Those who had advocated for silver lived that â€Å"hel l would freeze over† before Congress passed the repeal measure.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Challenges in Managing Innovation Across Supply Chains â€Evaluation and Implementation

[pic] Business Major-Minor Supply Chain Management Course Assignment Challenges in Managing Innovation across Supply Chains —Evaluation and Implementation Student: Ying Deng Student ID:1205690 Course Number: 07 14511 Teacher: Professor Dr Victoria Hanna Date: 10/01/2013 Acknowledgement This research paper is written for the subject: â€Å"Global Marketing† in the University of Birmingham. Firstly, we would like to thanks Almighty Lord to give us knowledge and keep us healthy during the whole period of our research work.Secondly, we are greatly indebted to our lecturer and advisor-Professor David Walker for his valued opinions and expert advice in the preparation of this thesis. Thirdly, we would like to express our appreciation to the convenient internet that greatly helped us to find whatever information that we needed. Finally, we want to express our gratitude to the Fujifilm Corporation for its kind assistance and support throughout the writing progress of this thesi s.We have also managed to collect some important information from the relative journals and books. All group members of the assignment University of Birmingham, April 2012 Table of contents Acknowledgement Abstract Importance of supply chain innovation Innovation and its source and types Challenge of innovation management—evaluation of innovation Effect of buyer-supplier power relations Example cases of success and failureChallenge of innovation management—implementation of innovation Implementation’s detailed challenges in different types of industry—service and physical goods Implementation’s detailed challenges in different types of industry—emerging and mature industries More challenges in innovation management REFERENCES Abstract Title of course: Supply Chain Management Program: Various. Authors: Ying Deng Supervisor: Dr Victoria Hanna Date: Sep 2012 to Dec 2012 Background: The complexity and scale of any firm’s supply chain has made the management of supply chain innovation difficult and full of uncertainty.However the fast developing market requires the supply chain to innovate as fast and efficient as possible. There are amounts of successful and failed cases of innovations across supply chain from the last centuries, yet it is a big challenge to successfully manage the innovations. Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate what Fujifilm did and is doing to develop in the global circumstance and with all the internal and external factors’ impacts, also what it probably will or should do in the future to maintain its current status and to improve.Conclusion: After evaluating Fujifilm’s history and current situation along with its recent marketing feedback data, also referring to abundant marketing theories and books, we will suggest Fujifilm to take various acts and strategies to remain competitive and maintain & increase its market share. Keywords: Supple chain, Innovation, Manag ement, Evaluation, Risk, Implementation, Buyer-supplier power, Product life cycle, Pre- and Post-contractual, service and physical goods, emerging and mature industriesThe â€Å"18 months law† (Gorden E, Moore, 1965) had suggested and been proved that the electronic market doubles its product’s function while halves its prices. The other industries, while maybe slower than the electronics but similarly fast changing, suggests, that the businesses innovate in every possible aspects within and related to themselves, to fit into the fast pace of today’s dynamic world with the information explosion, to catch up with the increasing globalization, savage price competition, increased customer demand for enhanced quality and reliability.Studies and experiences show that R&D spending is strongly positively associated with the probability of introducing a new product, and most of the businesses are willing to invest in the R&D activities to create the internal innovations (BRDIS data, NSF 11-300). However, apart from the internal R&D, the innovation can also be gained both from the supply chain itself such as by re-organizing resources or enhancing distribution systems, and the other ends across the supply chain, such as improvement from end-users’ feedback. One of the well-known examples is P&G's Continuous Replenishment Planning (CRP).The company Proctor & Gamble changed the entire value chain by driving orders based on DC withdrawal and sales data that successfully improved its service and reduced costs across the supply channel (Roger C. Vergin, & Kevin Barr, 1999). The direct customer input derives innovation, such as the overall product concept, and the timing of the launch to packaging and delivery (Kevin O'Marah, 2005). Other typical examples including innovations caused by improved assembly line such as the Ford Company in the early 1910s, and advanced technologies and processes such as the enhanced Ocean shipping container by Malcom Mclean in the 1956, etc.According to Porter’s five forces theory, the business is affected by its suppliers, customers, new enchants and new substitutes (Micheal E, Porter, 1979). Supply chain as it stands for, is usually regarded as the flow of resources and products from the supplier, through the firm, to the customers. Supply chain links the supplier, the business and the end-users (customers), as one of its key natures. The other features include its complexity caused by the fact that businesses’ product manufacturing or service providing usually involves more than one supplier and customer.These facts lead to the high possibility of innovations from the supply chain. Not only has the physical goods’ flow in the supply provided opportunities of innovation, but also the information flow from the opposite direction of the physical goods. The sources of innovation are mainly concluded as â€Å"push† and â€Å"pull† (Clegg, Juliana & Pilkington, 2 011). The â€Å"push† stands for technological opportunities that breed the innovation. The â€Å"pull† stands for market needs that urge for innovation. Also, there are more than the two sources, such as regulation change, users’ feedback, staff, etc.Innovation across supply chain can be from both to the â€Å"pull† and â€Å"push† fact just as the examples of Ford and P&G respectively. As stated above, the vast source of innovation of supply chain and from the supply chain provides a great pool of ideas and potential. However, accordingly, the variety also raises the problem of whether a specific innovation actually suits the business and the industry, and whether it can actually fulfill the aim of innovation—to make the profit rise, to satisfy stakeholder’s interests better by changes such as reduced cost or added value.The scale of supply chain raises the uncertainty of an innovation. This brings us to the discussion of challenges in managing innovation. How to evaluate the suitability of a supply chain innovation to an firm? Will there be any potential constraints to the innovation in the supply chain? How to deal with the timing issue of the evaluation? Will this innovation be risky in any part of the supply chain, from the supplier to the customer? Innovation can mainly be sorted into four types: Product, Process, Position, and Paradigm (4P’s).Whichever it is sorted into, innovation can be defined as a new idea, or the recombination of old ideas, or a scheme than challenges present order, or a formula, or a unique approach (Van de Ven, 1986:591). Most examples of the simple innovation are R&D departments’ new product design. This type of innovation are usually based on careful market research, built after detailed study of profitability and potential risk, released into the market after thorough limited-scoop test and trial. model) During all this process, the staff of the firm can gain full understanding of the design, and the design can be changed at any stage of the process to fit into the firm’s expectations and the market’s current trends. Also, as this type of innovation origins within the firm, the main timing issue of it will lay on the dynamic need and technology of the external market environment, while the consideration of competitors’ imitation/substitute can be comparatively lower as all the details could be kept in house or by patenting.On the other hand, innovations from the supply chain could be different. As the innovation can lay in any part of the supply chain, such as a enhanced information exchange system, or the distribution system’s transformation, the innovation will need thorough evaluation process to decide its suitability, such as the Farbey et al. (1993) and  Farbey & Finkelstein (2000) IS implementation’s evaluation framework. The effect of the innovation might not fit into the firm’s market envir onment and its current situation’s strategy.One of the most important aspects of the supply chain management is to study the buyer-supplier power relation, to reduce cost and increase value of the supply chain. Innovations across the supply chain, whether it is an information update or system reform or use of new technology, they can influence the power relation of the supply chain, desirably or undesirably. Positive changes to the power relation can help the firm gain a favorable position in or after the process of purchase/signing of contract.Taking the consideration of buyer-supplier power shift before an innovation is adopted is vital to the success of its implementation. The power relations, affected by information, scarcity and utility, can actually decide the profitability of the production and risk distribution between the firm itself and its suppliers & buyers. If the innovation to the supply chain lowers the liability to specific supply of materials, for example, th en the firm’s buyer power towards its supplier increases, with a possibility to bargain for lower prices on the materials.If, however, the liability is increased by the innovation, the supplier’s power increases, giving them the power to increase the selling price. The innovations, bringing changes to the current buyer-supplier relations, have the risk of lowering the buyer/supplier power of the firm, hence putting the firm in a unfavorable position in the supply chain, with the consequence of new or increased cost paid to suppliers, or reduced price to the buyers. It may also cause a decline in quality or efficiency as a series consequence.The wrong evaluation of the changes an innovation can bring to the supply chain and its buyer-supplier relations can be disastrous. Let us have a look at the Aris Isotoner’s 1994 sourcing calamity case. Trying to lower the cost, the executive of the company replaced the in-house production with outsourcing from suppliers in o ther Asian locales. However, this approach did not reduce the cost but raised it around 10-20%. Also, the responding speed was found slower, and the quality of the product was plummeted.As a series result, the company’s sales halved, causing more than $100 million loss and long lasting effects that required more investing to maintain the company. The Aris case is a clear example of how important it is to accurately evaluate the suitability and risk level of an innovation. The idea of outsourcing needs to be considered together with the current difference between in-house production and buying from suppliers. Not only the cost need to be considered, but also the quality of the product, and the speed of product supply.Taking it a little further, the communication process with the supplier can incur unexpected costs, for example, the lawyer fee. The matter of unemployment to the old plant’s employees could possibly cause HR problems that need time and effort to solve. The financial situation of the company may go through cash flow issues since the purchase of product can be much more expensive than raw materials. If the case is the other way around, that a company wants to bring the components’ production in-house, there can be multiple considerations, too.Apart from the problem of cost, location and quality, there can be human resource (suitable staff for the new plant, for example) and technology problems. As the production technology is comparatively new to the firm’s staff, it could be difficult to build up efficiency with the same cost at the beginning. Before an innovation to the supply chain is brought into practice, it is crucial to consider every possible impact that this innovation can have. Based on the scale of even the tiniest company, this could be difficult not to miss any aspect.In fact, supply chain innovation is more than difficult to go over restricted-scale test as there are actually no samples of supply chain. Eith er put the innovation into practice to observe the result after a while, or â€Å"simulate† it in imaginary models that cannot be perfectly detailed and has considerable mistake rates. Even if the suitability and risk level of an innovation can be accessed, can the response of the whole supply chain be quick enough and accurate enough? Will the integration of changed resources, information, the staff’s thinking and supplier updating be in time?Will there be â€Å"distortions† within the communication between the ends of supply chain? Is there any demand or idea conflict in the different fraction of the supply chain? These can all be the challenges that an innovation in the supply chain can meet. Also because of the innovation across the supply chain can hardly be kept in house, the firm’s competitors can get access to the ideas and the two firms may enter the situation that whichever introduces the new idea into the market first gains more advantage.Thus the innovation from the supply chain might end up as low or even no profit after evaluation, adoption, development and testing. This brings us to the challenge of proper implementation method and speed of the innovation. Based on different types of the supply chain, natures of different industries and the different environment of the market, the concerns and priorities of the implementation can actually be completely different. We will look into the difference between service and physical goods supply chain, and the difference between mature and emerging industries’ supply chain in the following paragraphs.All the challenges mentioned above can be seen in both service supply chains and physical good’s supply chains. These two types of supply chains share many same challenges, such as cost management, resource allocation, etc. They both need to be more dispersed, digitized and dynamic to catch up with the market trends. Unless the physical goods industry can successfull y digest the brought-innovation to gain its own patents, the two types of industries will both face the challenge of competitors’ imitation and timing.They will have differences of challenges, such as () but the major ones are usually the same as mentioned above. However, their priorities could be totally different. Though the service and physical goods supply chains face the same challenges mentioned above, there are some major differences between these two types of supply chain innovation. The difference is not shown by challenge’s types, but by the importance or significance of the same challenge.For example, service supply chain face the challenge of updating their staff’s knowledge of the new innovation as human resource is vital to the business and they actually face more intangible innovation than tangible ones, while physical goods supply chains might need to focus more on updating the plants and materials to follow up the new innovation’s require ments. Service, as an intangible product, focus its value more on technologies, techniques and human resource that accomplishes the service, and customer interaction level is generally higher.This implements that the service industry will focus more on intangible equities than tangible ones. When an innovation is in operation, for example, a new set of service, the service supply chain may suffer huge losses if its human resource and technology cannot follow the change, which may even lead to complete failure on the innovation. Also, the tight relation between service and customer participation requires the supply chain to be highly agile (Narasimhan, et al, 2006) to deal with changing demands.On the other hand, the physical goods supply chains are less strained to keep their staff on the trend. After evaluation of innovation, they are more affected by the problems related to physical production, such as material’s moving, location, distribution, etc. In emerging markets and mature ones, there can be difference of priorities to manage challenges, too. See it from the product life cycle theory (PLC), the mature markets’ products have stabilized consumer base, and the strategy of the firm is set and focused.The mature industries tend to have more incremental innovations either on process or on the product, thus they might need more time to evaluate the innovation based on existing products, and the consideration of cost and stuff/culture conversion. The strategies such as cost leadership, focus strategy, or differentiation give specific demand of innovation—lower the cost, or quicker delivery, or advanced function, etc. The human resource is well equipped with needed knowledge and technique, whereas the thinking of staff is harder to change.The priority of innovation management could be stabilizing, maintaining, improving, thus call for incremental innovation. The challenges are featured as trying not to affect existing value creation activi ties. Opposite to it, the emerging industries are going through fast growth, and demands radical innovation that has the potential to largely increase revenue or significantly reduce cost. The emerging industries have more possibility to encounter major breakthroughs and the radical innovations. There may be tense competition for market share. The market is unstable and the corporate strategies could change every day to follow market trends.Based on the emerging market, the supply chain’s innovations need to be fast responding and competency-building. The difference of innovation’s requirements can result in different evaluation standards and different methods to carry out the innovations. What’s more, we can see from the buy-supplier relation perspective. The emerging industries’ supply chain may hold more possibilities of communicating with new suppliers for new resources, so there need to be thorough consideration of the pre-contractual power relations . Wrong estimation of power relations may cause unnecessary costs.This requires more work on cost management and balancing benefits between different parties. In some of the cases, emerging industries face less competition, so the challenge of timing could be minor, but a few other cases mainly on service industries show that the emerging business could face even more severe competition and their profitability can vary significantly according to the introduction time. The suitability of innovation could be even harder to decide, because they will need to evaluate by speculation instead of looking for existing experience.They can consider less on the culture/staff conversion, though, as the thinking mode has not been set up yet. While for mature industries the existing pre-contractual relations are relatively stable because the information and resource of the buyer and supplier, no matter whether they are new entrants or existing firms, will actually be more stable. They will need to consider post-contractual power relations carefully, though, when the supply chain innovations are related to the replacement of suppliers. The transaction cost economy (TCE) shows that any changes to existing contracts can raise uncertainty hence raise risk to the supply chain.Based on individual industries’ difference, the challenges of managing innovation across the supply chain can be different in importance, significance and difficulty to settle. The nature of the industry, for example, whether it is national or international business, determines the priorities of challenge management. This is more specific to the individual differences, and requires experience and thorough research and careful design to successfully manage the innovations. The above mentioned challenges of evaluation and implementation are just two aspects of the challenges that innovation across the supply chain might encounter.There are also other challenges, such as managing conflicting requirements between the innovation’s development and the existing system, managing long term human resource and culture in relation to the innovation, developing the proper strategy to achieve win-win situation with the new innovation, etc. The last two mentioned above link to the features of the supply chain—more than one party is involved. The difference of staff and culture between the source party of innovation and the receiver party of it leads to the need of change in minds for the new innovation.The fact of involvement of the multiple parties leads to the possibility of win-win situation. However, this possibility could be a challenge because this could be a scenario of the game theory. Innovations can be the source of huge breakthrough and greater success to a firm’s supply chain. It can also be the source to risk and failure of the firm. Managing the challenges of supply chain innovation, though it is complex and require great efforts, can reduce the risks of the innovation. References: Watson, G. and Lonsdale, C. (eds. ) (2003) Managing the Supply Base within Business Networks, chapter 4Allwright, A. and Oliver, R. (1993) Buying Goods and Services, chapters 12-14 R Verma and K K Boyer, (2010) Operations and Supply Chain Management: World Class Theory and Practice, South-Western Dong Won Cho, Young Hae Lee, Sung Hwa Ahn, Min Kyu Hwang, (2012)A framework for measuring the performance of service supply chain management, Soft Computing for Management Systems, 62(3), Pages 801–818 A. J. van Weele, (2010) â€Å"Purchasing & supply chain management: analysis, strategy, planning and practice† 5th edition, Andover: Cengage Learning,Evangelista Pietro, Alan McKinnon, Edward Sweeney and Emilio Esposito, (2013)†Supply Chain Innovation for Competing in Highly Dynamic Markets: Challenges and Solutions. † IGI Global, 2012, 1-350. 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